Download Slide 1

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Blue carbon wikipedia , lookup

Human impact on the nitrogen cycle wikipedia , lookup

Marine debris wikipedia , lookup

Ocean acidification wikipedia , lookup

Lesson 22: Marine Policy
The health of our ocean
We’ve learned about the many resources and
services marine ecosystems provide
Both natural and human factors can affect the health
of these ecosystems
In today’s lesson we’ll learn about the challenges
marine ecosystems face and how marine policy can
address these challenges
What are some of the major challenges facing
marine ecosystems?
Water pollution
Habitat loss and degradation
Climate change
Water pollution
Two major pollution types:
Sources of marine pollution:
Point sources: From an identifiable “point” such as a factory
Nonpoint sources: Not from a single “point”; Carried to water
by runoff from various sources
Runoff, sewage treatment plants, factories, oil spills, accidents,
ocean dumping, offshore drilling, airborne emissions
Example: Deepwater Horizon Drilling Rig Explosion (2010)
Can you think of others?
Some effects of pollution:
Seafood and water contamination, loss of marine organisms,
beach closures, economic losses, eutrophication
Meeting the policy challenges: pollution
Federal Water Pollution Control Act (1972)
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act
Regulates ocean dumping and transport of waste
Also provides for the designation and protection of areas designated as
marine sanctuaries
Oil Pollution Act (1990)
Regulates pollutant discharges into U.S. waters
Provides federal guidance for preventing, responding to, and defining
liability for oil pollution incidents (e.g., spills) in U.S. waters.
Coastal Zone Management Act (1972)
Provides for management of non-point source pollution
Habitat loss and degradation
Photo: NOAA
Marine life requires habitat for
survival and growth
Habitat loss may impact species
dependent upon these areas
Sources of habitat destruction
include natural and human factors
– Coastal development that results
in wetlands loss
– Hurricanes may damage barrier
islands and seagrass beds
– Dams may block salmon from
reaching freshwater habitats
Mangroves, vital nursery habitat for
many tropical species, used to
cover around 60-75% of the earth’s
tropical coastline. By 2010, about 50%
of mangroves had been destroyed.
Meeting the policy challenges: habitat
National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act
– Sustainable Fishery Act Amendments (1996)
Provides for the protection, research, monitoring and conservation of coral
Marine Protected Areas Executive Order 13158 (2000):
Provides for the sustainable management of U.S. fisheries and the
conservation and protection of Essential Fish Habitats.
Coral Reef Protection Executive Order 13089 (1998)
Requires agencies to consider impacts to environment for proposed actions
Provides for the establishment and protection of marine areas that have
special preservation needs: about 5,000 worldwide in 2010
Photo: NOAA
Commercial fisheries provide food
and revenue for the United States
Overfishing can decrease fish stocks,
cause effects throughout the food web,
and impact the economy
Examples of overfished species (Sept., 2010):
Goal of fisheries management:
Maximum Sustainable Yield
Western Atlantic bluefin tuna
Atlantic cod in Georges Bank
the greatest number of fish that can be caught
each year without impacting the long-term
productivity of the stock
Fisherman harvesting Atlantic
surf clams
Additional challenge: Managing bycatch, the unintentional catch of
non-target organisms like sea turtles, marine mammals
Meeting the policy challenges: fisheries
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
Management Act (MSA) is the primary law governing
fisheries management in United States federal
First enacted in 1976 to help regulate foreign fishing in US waters
Created 8 regional fishery management councils to help manage
the nation’s fisheries
1996 Sustainable Fisheries Act amendments most notably added
measures to protect Essential Fish Habitat
The Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management
Reauthorization Act of 2006 (MSRA) amended MSA and
mandates new measures to help prevent and end overfishing.
Changes in climate can impact marine ecosystems
Sea level rise: ocean warming, loss of land-based
ice (e.g., glaciers) are causing sea levels to rise
Ocean acidification: ocean is absorbing increasing
CO2 from atmosphere, resulting in a lowering of
seawater pH
Possible Impacts: Wetland loss, erosion of coastal habitats,
habitat loss to marine species
Possible Impacts: Decrease in available carbonate, may affect
marine life that use carbonate to build shells and other structures
like shellfish, coral, and calcifying plankton.
Some marine organisms that require calcium
carbonate to build shells or other structures
Photos: NOAA
Elkhorn coral colony
Florida Keys
Spiny oyster
North Carolina, outer shelf
Deep sea clam
Blake ridge,
Atlantic ocean
Meeting the policy challenges: climate
Photo: NOAA
Federal Ocean Acidification
Research and Monitoring
(FOARAM) Act (2009)
Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC):
Provides for ocean acidification research
and monitoring
Established by the United Nations and
World Meteorological Organization
Created to provide the world with a leading
scientific group and perspective on the
current state and possible impacts of climate
In 2007, this NOAA mooring
was deployed to monitor ocean
Marine mammals and other protected
Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972)
prohibits the ‘taking’ of any marine mammals – which means in the U.S. it
is illegal to kill, hunt, trap or harass these species
Fact: The first international agreement to address wildlife conservation involved
protecting a marine mammal  the Northern fur seal
Endangered Species Act (1973)
International Whaling Commission (IWC)
Provides for the conservation of endangered and threatened species as
well as the ecosystems and habitats upon which they depend
An intergovernmental (international) governing body charged with the
conservation of whales and management of whaling
Establishing boundaries in the sea
United Nations Convention
on the Law of the Sea
Agreement resulting from
3rd United Nations Conference
on the Law of the Sea
– Defined countries’
Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ):
Extends out to 200 nautical miles
This map shows the EEZ of the US and
from shore and provide countries
with resource and exploration rights its territories
Photo: NOAA
Meeting the policy challenges: overall
Ecosystem-Based Management (EBM)
A relatively new approach to managing our marine
resources that focuses on whole ecosystems rather than
only individual species
Recognizes the connections between humans and the
Includes environmental, social and ecological goals
NOAA’s approach to EBM is adaptive (flexible to changing
information and conditions) and collaborative (to involve
participation from a broad range of groups and individuals
with an interest in our ocean’s resources)
Student activity
In today’s activity, you will learn more about
the challenges involved in managing our
marine resources