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Name: _________________________
Date: ___________________________
Marine Science
Block: ______
IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF MARINE SCIENCE
Time
Period/Year
Event/Person
Importance/Significance
Stone Age
----------------------------------
3000BCE
Polynesian Peoples
Ancient clam bakes show people using ocean as
resource
Took to open sea, settling mid-pacific islands, profound
knowledge of sea, dual-hulled ships, star navigation,
overpopulation, religious wars & resource depletion led
to migration
Sailing the Mediterranean, Red, Atlantic, Black &
Indian
Marketing in Britain
2000 BCE
Phoenicians
1200 BCE
400 BCE
Aristotle
200 BCE
Eratosthenes
995 A.D.
Vikings, Leif Eriksson
Dark Ages
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476-1500 AD
Viking raids
1451-1470
Prince Henry the Navigator
1492
Columbus
1519-1522
Magellan & crew
34 of original 204
1768-1776
James Cook
1728-1760
John Harrison
1st marine biologist; found gills are breathing
structures of fish
1st to calculate circumference of Earth (accurate to 8%
of true value)
Discovered Vinland (NA – Newfoundland)
Scientific inquiry came to a halt, Chinese became more
skilled, scientific progress by Arabs (medicine,
philosophy, etc)
Led to Renaissance
Established center for study of marine science &
navigation; patron of many ocean explorers
Rediscovered the “New World”
Sold/marketed it to Europeans (knew Earth was
Spherical)
1st to circumnavigate the world
3 yr voyage
First to make scientific observation, 3 yr voyage
“scientist” – accurate, thorough, complete descriptions
Invented chronometer – solved longitude problem
1st map of the Gulf Stream (Gulph)
1769-1770
Benjamin Franklin
1831
Charles Darwin
1838
US Exploring Expedition
1840s
Matthew Maury
Assembled wind & current charts; distributed to
mariners – 1st oceanographer
1840s-1850s
Edward Forbes
Extensive dredging of sea floor
“Life below 549 m (1800 ft) impossible”
1st “only-for-science” expedition – 3 ½ years, laid
foundation for modern marine Science, set new
standards for studying the ocean
Dispelled Forbes hypothesis
Challenger
1872
Stazione Zoologica
1893-1896
1910
1909
1911
Nansen, Peary, Amundsen, &
Scott
WWII
SONAR
Post WWII
Jacques Cousteau
1940s-1950s
Thor Heyerdahl
1960
Trieste
1970s-present
Robert Ballard
2000-2010
Census of Marine Life
HMS Beagle – 5 years – detailed observations of
natural world – “How Atolls Form” – captured plankton
4 yr mission – core of Smithsonian Institution
1st permanent marine laboratory – allowed organisms to
be kept alive
Nansen – polar oceanography-Fram
Amundsen – Antarctica-1st to reach South Pole
Peary – 1st to reach North Pole
Scott – 1st extensive investigation of South Pole
Sound Navigating & ranging – mapping the ocean floor
SCUBA – allowed scientists to observe animals in
natural habitats
Recreates trips of Polynesians using rafts
Walsh & Picard descended into Challenger Deep
11,022m (6.85 mi)
1977-discovered hydrothermal vents
1985-discovered Titanic
1989-discovered Bismarck
A 10-year exploration revealing what, where, and how
much lives and hides in global oceans