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The Black Sea – a pilot area to
understand the marine
ecosystem evolution and to
develop protective
Yuvenaly Zaitsev
An Exceptional Sea
 The Black Sea (BS) is an inland
intercontinental sea. Because of heavy
discharge of river water the surface layer of
the BS has a relatively low salinity 16-18‰
which below 200 m reaches 21-22‰. This,
combined with the shallowness of the
connecting channels with the Mediterranean,
makes the BS a stagnant marine area.
 As a result 87% of water column and 75% of
bottom are contaminated with H2S.
An Exceptional Sea
 This area was traditionally considered azoic
(without life) except anaerobic bacteria.
 Last time, viable dormant stages of dozen
species of aerobic bacteria, unicellular algae
and fungi in the deepest sediments of the sea
were discovered.
 Because of low number of marine species,
the BS has a limited ecological immunity and
is open for penetration of alien species.
 First
textbook “An Introduction to the
Black Sea Ecology” for students,
 First Posters for involving the public in
environmental protection actions:
“Save the Black Sea”, “Commercial
Fisheries in the Black Sea. Three
decades of decline” and “Endangered
Species of the Black Sea Wetlands”
Organization of the first Bilateral RomaniaUkraine Danube delta Reserve;
 Creation of new protected areas;
 Monitoring of harmful exotic species;
 Current information about ecological events
in the Black Sea for public awareness…
2. There are very few information about the
biological diversity, number, biomass and
production in all types of contour biotopes
(splash and spray zones) of the Black Sea
(sandy beaches, rocky coasts, man-made
constructions). No enough data about the
impact of different coastal constructions and
communities. These data are important for
the assessment of the man-made impact
coastal areas.
Solution of the major Black Sea ecological
problems needs for a holistic approach at
regional level.
Therefore further development of
International Concerted Action is the only
realistic way for protection and rehabilitation
of the Black Sea.