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Media Effects and Cultural Approaches to Research “What are the media doing to us?” Early Research • Propaganda Analysis Early Research • Propaganda Analysis • Public Opinion Research Public opinion • Gallup • Roper Early Research • Propaganda Analysis • Public Opinion Research • Marketing Research 1. Define the problem. The problem then becomes the focus of the research. 2. How will you collect the data that you will analyze to solve your problem? Telephone survey? Focus group? 3. Select a sampling method. Random sample, stratified sample, or cluster sample? 4. How will you analyze any data collected? 5. Determine budget and timeframe. 6. Collect the data. 7. Analyze the data. 8.Final report. Contain charts, tables, and diagrams that will communicate the results of the research. Watch out for errors in interpretation. Early Research • Propaganda Analysis • Public Opinion Research • Marketing Research • Social Psychology Studies Social Psychology Studies • Attempt to measure behavior and cognition. • The Payne Studies examined young peoples’ (physiological) reactions to movies. Viewing of sexual and aggressive behavior. • Established the model for studies of TV viewing in the 60s. Key Phases in Research • • • • Hypodermic Needle Direct Effects Magic Bullet Led to formulation of the transportation model. Transportation Model meaning meaning Channel or Medium SENDER ENCODE MESSAGE Feedback loop DECODE RECEIVER Minimal Effects Model • Selective Exposure • Selective Retention • Without filters we would be overwhelmed by stimuli. • Sense-Select-Perceive-Remember-LearnKnow. Uses & Gratifications Model • For what do you use the media? • What needs does is gratify? Approaches to media effects • Scientific method. Based on Hypotheses, research and testing, and analyses. • Experiments. Problems? • Surveys. • Validity & reliability. • Longitudinal study. • Content Analysis. Social Learning Theory • Media portrayals teach us our “roles.” • Gender, race, socioeconomic. Explaining media effects. • • • • Agenda Setting Cultivation Effect Status Conferral Most media research best explains effects on individuals – not on community or social life. Cultural Studies • Textual: looking at interpretation and meaning of symbols of culture. • Audience: how people use cultural content. • Political Economy: concern over the increasing conglomeration of media ownership.