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Transcript
Section 9: Personality Disorders
Personality Disorders
• Inflexible traits that disrupt social life
• Appear by late adolescence
• Can’t be distinguished from personality like other
mental disorders – is their personality
• Pleading insanity because of a personality
disorder won’t work in court
Cluster A Personality Disorders
• Odd, eccentric thinking and behavior
1. Paranoid
2. Schizoid
3. Schizotypal
Paranoid Personality Disorder
•
•
•
•
•
Distrustful and suspicious of others
Interpret motives as harmful / evil
Lead isolated lives
Argumentative
Not confused about reality, but have distorted
view
• Suspicion of doctors may keep them from
getting treatment
Schizoid Personality Disorder
• No interest with
relationships with
others
• No emotions, no
attachment
• No delusions or
hallucinations
• Not as disabling as
schizophrenia
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
• Trouble with relationships & disturbances in
thought patterns, appearance, and behavior
• May have brief delusions or hallucinations,
but not as intense as with Schizos
– Can distinguish between reality and distortions
• Usually also have major depression
• Have unusual beliefs (aliens)
Cluster B Personality Disorders
• Dramatic, overly emotional thinking and
behavior
1.
2.
3.
4.
Antisocial
Borderline
Histrionic
narcissistic
Antisocial
• Not someone who avoids social interaction
• Persistent behavior pattern of disregard for,
and violation of, the rights of others
• No guilt or remorse
• No drugs or therapy will help
• Continue behavior even if threat of social
rejection or punishment
• Kids: run away, hurt others / animals / lie / steal
– Fearless, unconcerned with rewards, unusually calm
– Unrestrained sexual behavior
– When combined with high intelligence = dangerous
• Adults: aggressive, no job, don’t pay bills
Acting like a criminal
• Lack of conscious
• Don’t even abide by rules usually followed by
criminals
• Smooth and agreeable on outside
• Repeatedly in conflict with law
Why?
• Biological reasons
– Premature birth
– Reduced activity in frontal lobe
– No significant genetic patterns / body chemistry
found
• Environmental issues
– Poverty, unstable family
– Family history of neglect / rough treatment
– Alcoholic & abusive parents
Borderline Personality Disorder
• Long-term patterns of turbulent or unstable
emotions
• Causes impulsive actions & chaotic
relationships
• Respond with rage and emptiness
• Symptoms: uncertain of identity, see things in
terms of extremes, suicidal behavior
• Causes: abuse, abandonment, unstable family
Histrionic
• Being overly dramatic
and emotional
• To draw attention to
self
• Starts in early
adulthood
• Could lead to
depression
Narcissistic
• Inflated self-esteem,
extreme preoccupation
with self
• Need constant attention
• Exaggerate talents and
achievements
• Selfish
• Disregard other’s
feelings, no empathy
Cluster C Personality Disorders
• Fearful thinking and behavior
1. Avoidant
2. Dependent
3. Obsessive-Compulsive
Avoidant Personality Disorder
•
•
•
•
•
Social inhibition
Feelings of inadequacy
Would rather be alone than risk trying to connect
Avoid work, school functions
Treatment: antidepressants help, but therapy is
ultimate idea
• If untreated, could become mood disorder or
substance abuser
Dependent Personality Disorder
• One of most common
personality disorders
• Excessive dependence on
others
• Tolerant of abusive
treatment
• Passive, needy, naive
• Different from Borderline
P.D.
– Respond with
submissiveness and monkey
bar theory in relationships
Obsessive-Compulsive (OCPD)
• Many similar symptoms
to OCD but:
– No obsessions or
compulsions
• Seek treatment because
of conflicts with those
close (not because of
anxiety like OCD)
• Perfectionist, controlling,
obsessed with orderliness