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The Endocrine system
Glands and hormones
• Hormones- chemical
messengers carried by
blood– May stimulate other
– Regulate growth,
development, metabolism,
sex processes
• Hormones
need a specific
receptor on a
specific cell to
do their job
Major Glands of the Endocrine system
Pituitary gland
• Master gland of body
• Located in the depression of sphenoid bone
• Produces many hormones that affect other
– thyroid stimulating hormone
– Somatotropin- growth hormone
– Lutenizing (LH)- causes ovulation
– ICSH- causes testes to secrete testosterone
– Melanocyte stimulating- distribution of melanin in
– ADH- antidiuretic hormone
• Giantismoversecretion of
somatotropin before
• Dwarfismundersecretion of
somatotropin. Cause:
tumor, injury,
infection, genetics
• Diabetes insipidusdecreased ADH
• Thyroid- produces
hormones that control
metabolism and
calcium in blood.
• Thyroid gland must
have any source of
– goiter- not enough
– hyperthyroidism
– hypothyroidism
• Adrenal glands
• Located just above
the kidney
• Secretes many
• Epinephrine
• Norepinephrine
• Many steroid
hormones, inc
estrogen and
• Pancreas• pancreatic juices into
the intestine
• secretes insulin, a
hormone that
transports glucose
into cells.
• Also secretes
glucagon- increases
glucose in
• Diabetes Mellitus• Cause- decreased secretion of insulin
• Symptoms
– Excessive thirst, excessive urination,
hyperglycemia, slow healing of skin infections
– Affects 21 million in US: 7% of population
– Estimated 1/3 of people who have diabetes
don’t know it
– 225,000 die each year
– 132 billion/year- 10% of our health care
• Insulin was the first hormone identified
(late 1920's) which won the doctor and
medical student who discovered it the
Nobel Prize (Banting and Best)
• 1982 - Human Insulin - First ever
approved genetically engineered human
therapeutic by Genentech
• In May 1960, the FDA approved the sale
of a pill that arguably would have a greater
impact on Americans than any other drug
in the nation's history.
• For women across the country, the
contraceptive pill was liberating: it allowed
them to pursue careers, fueled the feminist
and pro-choice movements and
encouraged more open attitudes towards
• Estrogen in pill suppresses FSH in
pituitary- ovulation does not occur