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KH 2220
Laura Abbott, MS, LMT
Day 21
Lower Extremities Boney
The head which fits into the accetabulum
to form the hip joint.
The neck is the weakest part of the bone.
It is the part that usually breaks when a
person "breaks their hip."
The greater trochanter is a large and
prominent bump just distal to the head.
The lesser trochanter is smaller than the
greater trochanter.
Femur, Cont’d
• The linea aspera is a ridge that runs
vertically along the posterior shaft of the
• The medial condyle and lateral condyle
are 2 prominent bumps on the distal end
of the bone. They have upon them the
medial and lateral epicondyles.
• The intercondylar notch is the space
between the condyles.
• The tibia is the second largest and strongest bone in the
body. Special features include:
• The medial and lateral condyles which meet the femur to
form the knee joint.
• The intercondylar eminence is a spike-like projection
located between the condyles.
• The tibial tuberosity is a bump on the anterior side of the
bone just inferior to the condyles.
• The crest is a sharp ridge that runs vertically along the
anterior side of the shaft.
• The medial malleolus is a bump on the distal end of the
• The slender fibula joins with the tibia
proximally and distally. But since it does
not contribute to the knee joint it is
considered a "non-weight-bearing bone."
• Its features include:
– The head, is a rounded bump, which joins the
tibia proximally.
– The lateral malleolus, is a bump on the lateral
distal end.
• The actual location of the 7 ankle bones
(tarsals) is the proximal portion of the foot.
The area that contains the tarsals is called
the "tarsus."
• The largest tarsal is called the calcaneus
also known as the heel bone. The next
largest tarsal is the talus.
• The talus joins the tibia (and to lesser
extent, the fibula) to form the ankle joint.
Tarsals, cont’d
• The calcaneus and talus together bear
the most weight from above.
• The rest of the tarsals are the navicular,
cuboid and 3 cuneiforms (medial,
middle, and lateral.
• The foot is called the metatarsus, and the foot
bones are called the metatarsals.
• They are numbered 1-5 from medial to lateral.
Proximally, they join the tarsals, and distally their
heads join the toe bones.
• The head of metatarsal # 1 is very prominent; it
plays an important role in weight bearing by
forming most of "ball of the foot."
• As we walk, the weight of the shifts from the heel
to the ball o the foot.
• The bones of the toe are called the
• They are numbered 1-5 from the great to
the pinkie toe.
• The great toe consist of 2 phalanges, each
of the other 4 toes consists of 3.
The Arches of the Foot
• The most prominent one is the medial
longitudinal arch.
• There is also a lateral longitudinal arch,
and a transverse arch.
• The factors that support the arches are
– (1) the shapes of the bones,
– (2) muscular activity,
– (3) supportive ligaments.