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KH 2220 Laura Abbott, MS, LMT Day 21 Lower Extremities Boney Landmarks Femur • • • • The head which fits into the accetabulum to form the hip joint. The neck is the weakest part of the bone. It is the part that usually breaks when a person "breaks their hip." The greater trochanter is a large and prominent bump just distal to the head. The lesser trochanter is smaller than the greater trochanter. Femur, Cont’d • The linea aspera is a ridge that runs vertically along the posterior shaft of the femur. • The medial condyle and lateral condyle are 2 prominent bumps on the distal end of the bone. They have upon them the medial and lateral epicondyles. • The intercondylar notch is the space between the condyles. Tibia • The tibia is the second largest and strongest bone in the body. Special features include: • The medial and lateral condyles which meet the femur to form the knee joint. • The intercondylar eminence is a spike-like projection located between the condyles. • The tibial tuberosity is a bump on the anterior side of the bone just inferior to the condyles. • The crest is a sharp ridge that runs vertically along the anterior side of the shaft. • The medial malleolus is a bump on the distal end of the bones. Fibula • The slender fibula joins with the tibia proximally and distally. But since it does not contribute to the knee joint it is considered a "non-weight-bearing bone." • Its features include: – The head, is a rounded bump, which joins the tibia proximally. – The lateral malleolus, is a bump on the lateral distal end. Tarsals • The actual location of the 7 ankle bones (tarsals) is the proximal portion of the foot. The area that contains the tarsals is called the "tarsus." • The largest tarsal is called the calcaneus also known as the heel bone. The next largest tarsal is the talus. • The talus joins the tibia (and to lesser extent, the fibula) to form the ankle joint. Tarsals, cont’d • The calcaneus and talus together bear the most weight from above. • The rest of the tarsals are the navicular, cuboid and 3 cuneiforms (medial, middle, and lateral. Metatarsals • The foot is called the metatarsus, and the foot bones are called the metatarsals. • They are numbered 1-5 from medial to lateral. Proximally, they join the tarsals, and distally their heads join the toe bones. • The head of metatarsal # 1 is very prominent; it plays an important role in weight bearing by forming most of "ball of the foot." • As we walk, the weight of the shifts from the heel to the ball o the foot. Phalanges • The bones of the toe are called the phalanges. • They are numbered 1-5 from the great to the pinkie toe. • The great toe consist of 2 phalanges, each of the other 4 toes consists of 3. The Arches of the Foot • The most prominent one is the medial longitudinal arch. • There is also a lateral longitudinal arch, and a transverse arch. • The factors that support the arches are – (1) the shapes of the bones, – (2) muscular activity, – (3) supportive ligaments.