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KH 2220
Laura Abbott, MS, LMT
Day 21
Lower Extremities Boney
Landmarks
Femur
•
•
•
•
The head which fits into the accetabulum
to form the hip joint.
The neck is the weakest part of the bone.
It is the part that usually breaks when a
person "breaks their hip."
The greater trochanter is a large and
prominent bump just distal to the head.
The lesser trochanter is smaller than the
greater trochanter.
Femur, Cont’d
• The linea aspera is a ridge that runs
vertically along the posterior shaft of the
femur.
• The medial condyle and lateral condyle
are 2 prominent bumps on the distal end
of the bone. They have upon them the
medial and lateral epicondyles.
• The intercondylar notch is the space
between the condyles.
Tibia
• The tibia is the second largest and strongest bone in the
body. Special features include:
• The medial and lateral condyles which meet the femur to
form the knee joint.
• The intercondylar eminence is a spike-like projection
located between the condyles.
• The tibial tuberosity is a bump on the anterior side of the
bone just inferior to the condyles.
• The crest is a sharp ridge that runs vertically along the
anterior side of the shaft.
• The medial malleolus is a bump on the distal end of the
bones.
Fibula
• The slender fibula joins with the tibia
proximally and distally. But since it does
not contribute to the knee joint it is
considered a "non-weight-bearing bone."
• Its features include:
– The head, is a rounded bump, which joins the
tibia proximally.
– The lateral malleolus, is a bump on the lateral
distal end.
Tarsals
• The actual location of the 7 ankle bones
(tarsals) is the proximal portion of the foot.
The area that contains the tarsals is called
the "tarsus."
• The largest tarsal is called the calcaneus
also known as the heel bone. The next
largest tarsal is the talus.
• The talus joins the tibia (and to lesser
extent, the fibula) to form the ankle joint.
Tarsals, cont’d
• The calcaneus and talus together bear
the most weight from above.
• The rest of the tarsals are the navicular,
cuboid and 3 cuneiforms (medial,
middle, and lateral.
Metatarsals
• The foot is called the metatarsus, and the foot
bones are called the metatarsals.
• They are numbered 1-5 from medial to lateral.
Proximally, they join the tarsals, and distally their
heads join the toe bones.
• The head of metatarsal # 1 is very prominent; it
plays an important role in weight bearing by
forming most of "ball of the foot."
• As we walk, the weight of the shifts from the heel
to the ball o the foot.
Phalanges
• The bones of the toe are called the
phalanges.
• They are numbered 1-5 from the great to
the pinkie toe.
• The great toe consist of 2 phalanges, each
of the other 4 toes consists of 3.
The Arches of the Foot
• The most prominent one is the medial
longitudinal arch.
• There is also a lateral longitudinal arch,
and a transverse arch.
• The factors that support the arches are
– (1) the shapes of the bones,
– (2) muscular activity,
– (3) supportive ligaments.