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Download Summary: Femur, tibia and fibula are the long bones of legs of lower
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Summary: Femur, tibia and fibula are the long bones of legs of lower extremity. Femur is the bone of the thigh, while tibia and fibula are the bones of lower leg. Being long bones, all the three bones are characterized by the presence of two ends (epiphyses) and one shaft (diaphysis) which connects the upper and lower epiphysis. Femur is the longest, strongest and heaviest bone of human body. Its upper extremity possesses more or less a spherical head, a constricted neck, a quadrangular prominence called greater trochanter opposite to the head and a conical eminence called lesser trochanter below the neck in line with the head. The shaft is more or less cylindrical in most part excepting prismoid cross section at the lower part because of the flat triangular popliteal surface on the dorsal or posterior surface. The shaft has a prominent ridge on the posterior surface linea aspera -a prominent distinguishing character of human femur. The lower end presents two condyles-medial and lateral which articulates mainly with superior articular surface of tibia, two epicondyles and an articular surface anteriorly for articulation with patella bone. Tibia is the medial bone of the two lower leg bones of the lower limb, while fibula is the lateral bone. The upper end of tibia is expanded forming two condyles medial and lateral. The superior surface of the condyles are provided with concave and smooth articular surfaces separated by an eminence- intercondylar eminence. Posteriorly the condyles separated by popliteal notch. The shaft is fairly straight, prismatic and triangular above and continues to decrease till the most at lower ¼. It has three borders- anterior, medial and lateral, and three surfaces viz. internal, external and posterior. The lower end has five surfaces viz. anterior, posterior, medial, lateral and inferior. The distal end a strong process projecting downward called medial malleolus. The upper end of the fibula which is known as head is irregular quadrate in form. The apex of the head (styloid process) projects upward. The lower end has a projection downward called lateral malleolus. The shaft is slender and has three borders - anterior, posterior and medial, three surfaces -medial, lateral, posterior.