Download Summary: Femur, tibia and fibula are the long bones of legs of lower

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Femur, tibia and fibula are the long bones of legs of lower
extremity. Femur is the bone of the thigh, while tibia and
fibula are the bones of lower leg. Being long bones, all the
three bones are characterized by the presence of two ends
(epiphyses) and one shaft (diaphysis) which connects the
upper and lower epiphysis. Femur is the longest, strongest
and heaviest bone of human body. Its upper extremity
possesses more or less a spherical head, a constricted neck, a
quadrangular prominence called greater trochanter opposite
to the head and a conical eminence called lesser trochanter
below the neck in line with the head. The shaft is more or less
cylindrical in most part excepting prismoid cross section at
the lower part because of the flat triangular popliteal surface
on the dorsal or posterior surface. The shaft has a prominent
ridge on the posterior surface linea aspera -a prominent
distinguishing character of human femur. The lower end
presents two condyles-medial and lateral which articulates
mainly with superior articular surface of tibia, two epicondyles
and an articular surface anteriorly for articulation with patella
bone. Tibia is the medial bone of the two lower leg bones of
the lower limb, while fibula is the lateral bone. The upper end
of tibia is expanded forming two condyles medial and lateral.
The superior surface of the condyles are provided with
concave and smooth articular surfaces separated by an
eminence- intercondylar eminence. Posteriorly the condyles
separated by popliteal notch. The shaft is fairly straight,
prismatic and triangular above and continues to decrease till
the most at lower ¼. It has three borders- anterior, medial
and lateral, and three surfaces viz. internal, external and
The lower end has five surfaces viz. anterior,
posterior, medial, lateral and inferior. The distal end a
malleolus. The upper end of the fibula which is known as
head is irregular quadrate in form. The apex of the head
(styloid process) projects upward. The lower end has a
projection downward called lateral malleolus. The shaft is
slender and has three borders - anterior, posterior and
medial, three surfaces -medial, lateral, posterior.