Download longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body Proximally

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Femur
longest, heaviest, and strongest
bone in the body
Proximally: articulates with the
acetabulum of the hip bone
forming the hip joint
Distally: articulate with the
condyles of the tibia forming the
knee joint
Surface Features of Femur
* Proximal end
1. Head: (1/2 sphere)
2. Neck
3. Greater trochanter: (Lateral)
4. Lesser trochanter: (inferior and
medial)
5. Intertrochanteric line: (Anterior)
6. Intertrochanteric crest: (Posterior)
7. Gluteal tuberosity: (inferior to the
intertrochanteric crest
* Shaft
1. Linea Aspera: (posterior)
* Distal end
1. Femoral Condyles
2. Femoral epicondyles
3. Intercondylar fossa (Posterior)
4. patellar surface (Anterior)
Tibia
Tibia:
Located medially
weight-bearing bone of the leg
Surface features:
* Proximal end:
1. Tibial condyles
2. Tibial tuberosity: (anterior,
patellar ligament)
3. Intercondylar eminence: (upward
projection)
* Distal end
1. Medial malleolus (Medial,
articulate with talus)
2. fibular notch (Lateral)
Fibula
1.
2.
Slender bone, smaller than
tibia: (No articulation with
femur)
Located laterally
Features:
Head: Proximal end
Lateral malleolus:
(articulate with talus)
Bones of the foot
7 Tarsal bones
1.
Talus (ankle= ‫)كاحل‬
2.
Calcaneus (heel= ‫)كعب‬
3.
Navicular (little boat)
4.
Medial Cuneiform (wedge-shape)
5.
Intermediate Cuneiform
6.
Lateral Cuneiform
7.
Cuboid
Muscle tissue
There are four characteristics associated
with muscle tissue:
Excitability
- Tissue can receive & respond to stimulation
Contractility
- Tissue can shorten & thicken
Extensibility
- Tissue can lengthen
Elasticity
- After contracting or lengthening, tissue
always wants to return to its resting state
Types of muscle tissue:
Skeletal muscle tissue
• Associated with & attached to the skeleton
• Under our conscious (voluntary) control
• Microscopically the tissue appears striated
• Cells are long, cylindrical & multinucleated
Connective tissue component
Dense
irregular CT
Dense
irregular CT
Surrounded by
perimysium
10-100 muscle
fibers
Reticular fiber
Surrounded by
epimysium
Surrounded by
endomysium
Microanatomy of a Muscle Fiber (Cell)
Transverse (T) tubules: (invaginations
of the sarcolemma), spread of action
potential
Sarcoplasm: contains
myoglobin (oxygen
binding and release)
Sarcoplasmic
sarcolemma (plasma membrane)
reticulum: (Ca+2
Terminal
stores)
cisternae:
Dilated sacs
mitochondria
thick myofilament
thin
myofilament
Myofibril:
arranged in
compartments called
sarcomeres
nuclei
triad