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Transcript
th
19
Century Imperialism
The “New” Imperialism
Europe’s Race to Grab the World
Monroe Doctrine 1823
After the American Revolution, the United
States wished to prevent foreign interference in
America.
The Monroe Doctrine (issued by American
President, James Monroe in 1823), alerted
European powers that the American continents
should not be considered for any future
colonization by Europeans.
How did the Monroe Doctrine impact
revolutions in Latin America?
Latin American nations were acknowledged to
be independent.
The United States would regard as a threat to its
own peace and safety any attempt by European
powers to impose their system on any
independent state in the Western Hemisphere.
Monroe Doctrine
The point of view expressed in this political
cartoon is that U.S. foreign policy under the
Monroe Doctrine protected the Western
Hemisphere from hostilities overseas.
Imperialism
APS Standards
Essential Understandings:
Industrial nations in Europe needed natural resources
and markets to expand their economies.
These nations competed to control Africa and Asia to
secure their economic and political success.
Imperialism spread economic, political, and social
philosophies of Europe throughout the world.
Resistance to imperialism took many forms including
armed conflict and intellectual movements.
Imperialism
APS Standards
Essential Knowledge
Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for
colonial possessions. European economic, military,
and political power forced colonized countries to
trade on European terms. Industrially-produced goods
flooded colonial markets and displaced their
traditional industries. Colonized peoples resisted
European domination and responded in diverse ways
to Western influences.
Imperialism
APS Standards
Forms of imperialism
Colonies
Protectorates
Spheres of influence
Imperialism
APS Standards
Imperialism occurs when a strong nation takes over a
weaker nation or region and dominates its economic,
political, or cultural life.
Imperialism
APS Standards
Imperialism in Africa and Asia
European domination
European conflicts carried to the colonies
Christian missionary efforts
Spheres of influence in China
Suez Canal
East India Company’s domination of Indian states
American opening of Japan to trade
Imperialism
APS Standards
Responses of colonized peoples
Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer
Rebellion in China)
Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party
founded in the mid-1800s)
Forces Enabling African and
Indian Imperialism
European technological superiority
Steamboats
Automatic machine gun
Locomotive
Telegraph
Europeans had the means to control their empires
Easy travel
Wide spread communication
African and Indian disunity
Huge variety of cultures
Fighting among cultures
Huge business interests and support from companies
Responses of Colonized Peoples
Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer
Rebellion in China)
Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party
founded in the mid-1800s)
Social Darwinist View of Imperialism
Some Europeans viewed imperialism as a moral
responsibility to civilize what they considered
primitive cultures
Why Imperialize?
Industrial nations in Europe needed natural
resources and markets to expand their
economies.
These nations competed to control Africa and
Asia to secure their economic and political
success.
Imperialism spread economic, political, and
social philosophies of Europe throughout the
world.
Vocabulary
Imperialism: Policy of building an empire to
extend a nation's power and territory - when
one country takes over another and its
economy, culture and politics.
Colony: A settlement of people outside their
homeland, linked with the parent country by
trade and direct government control
Vocabulary
Protectorate: A country whose policies are
guided by a foreign nation
Sphere of influence: An area in a country where
a foreign power has exclusive rights to trade or
invest
"Paternalism" comes from the Latin pater,
meaning to act like a father, or to treat another
person like a child
The True Size of Africa
Nationalism
Nationalism motivated European nations to compete
for colonial possessions.
European economic, military, and political power
forced colonized countries to trade on European
terms.
Industrially-produced goods flooded colonial
markets and displaced their traditional industries.
Colonized peoples resisted European domination
and responded in diverse ways to Western
influences.
Suez Canal
Europeans needed a faster way to get
from the Mediterranean to the
Indian Ocean
In 1869, the Suez Canal was
completed to connect the
Mediterranean to the Red Sea.
Suez Canal
Great Britain controlled the canal.
Known by the British as their “Lifeline to
India”
Colonial Administrative Styles
Direct Rule- Local elites were removed from power
and replaced with a new set of officials from the
European country
Did not attempt to preserve African political
institutions
French, German and Portuguese style of colonial
rule
Indirect Rule-Allowed local rulers to maintain
positions of authority in the new colonial setting
British style of colonial rule
British Entrepreneur Cecil Rhodes
“We happen to be
the best people in
the world, with the
highest ideals of
decency and justice
and liberty and
peace, and the more
of the world we
inhabit, the better it
is for humanity.”
Africa Before and After Colonization
"The White Man's Burden"
Rudyard Kipling, a British author, wrote a poem
called "The White Man's Burden".
It describes a sentiment that many Europeans
had--that it was the duty of Imperial nations to
"raise up" their colonies to European standards
of living like:
Education, infrastructure, religion, clothing, etc.
The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire
The only
free states
remaining
in Africa by
1914 were
Liberia
and
Ethiopia.
Scramble for Africa
1880 – Most of Africa consisted of independent
states
1914 – With the exception of Ethiopia and
Liberia, all of Africa was controlled by
Europeans
Berlin Conference 1884-1885
A conference held in Berlin, Germany that divided
the African continent in 50 irregular states among
the European powers of: Great Britain, Germany,
Portugal and France.
There were no Africans represented at the
conference.
This division of territory did not take into account
the thousands of tribes in Africa resulting in some
tribes being torn apart and warring tribes now
being the same borders.
Boer War-1899-1902
An example of a European conflict carrying over
to their colonies.
The Boer’s were Dutch farmer, also known as
Afrikaners who were the descendants of the
original Dutch settlers of Cape Town and the
surrounding areas.
British, Dutch (Afrikaner, Boer), Zulu (Natives)
fought for control of South Africa.
Britain wins.
Imperialism in Asia
India
British East India Company
The British East India Company had been given
a monopoly of all English trade to Asia by
royal grant at its foundation in 1600.
The British East India Company dominated trade
in India of spices and then later, cotton and
silk.
India was so profitable, it was called the “Jewel
in the Crown.”
Life of the British in India
British East India Company
The Great Rebellion/Sepoy Mutiny
British East India company controlled much of India
using Sepoys.
Sepoys- Indian soldiers, Hindu or Muslim, were
hired by the British.
Rifle cartridges had to be greased with fat.
A soldier had to bite the covering off before the
bullet could be inserted into a gun.
A rumor of the use of cow or pig fat was used as
grease.
How was this a problem?
Indian Nationalist Party
Rise of nationalism in India led to the first Indian
nationalist party
Founded in 1885 with the objective of obtaining a
greater share in government for educated Indians
China
Trade in China
China was in a period of decline by the late 1700s
The Industrial Revolution in Europe created a need
for raw materials and markets
Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders
Trade took place in a small area of southern ChinaCanton
Opium for Tea
There were no goods China wanted from the West.
The British discovered that they could trade the
addictive drug opium (from India) for Chinese
goods- tea, silk, porcelain.
The Chinese did not want opium imported to their
country.
This conflict resulted in the Opium Wars.
The British won the Opium Wars with their superior
technology.
The Opium Wars-Results
1839–1842, 1856–1860
Opium is made from a poppy- traditionally grown in
India.
Opium is a highly addictive substance
British merchants made huge profits by trading
opium grown in India for Chinese tea
Many Chinese became addicted to the drug
Silver flowed out of China in payment for opium
which disrupted the economy and destroyed lives.
Boxer Rebellion
2 November 1899 – 7 September 1901
Europeans created spheres of influence in order to
trade with China.
Boxers were a group of anti-foreigner Chinese.
They rebelled against the imperialist European
countries that were trading in China.
The Boxers revolted to kick the European’s out of
China - called the Boxer Rebellion
The Europeans defeated the Boxers so that they
could keep trading in China
Boxers fighting the Eight-Nation Alliance
British and Japanese soldiers depicted
What does this cartoon represent?
A Shocked Mandarin in Manchu
Queen
Victoria
Wilhelm II
Germany
Nicholas II
Russia
Marianne
France
A Japanese
samurai
Chine
“China"
in French
Open Door Policy 1899
The U.S. wanted an ‘open
door policy’ because they
were late to imperialize and
did not get a sphere of
influence.
It is a statement of U.S.
foreign policy toward
China.
The statement reaffirmed the
principle that all countries
should have equal access
to any Chinese port open
to trade.
Japan
Japan
In 1854, the United States sent a fleet of battleships
to Japan under the command of Commodore
Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy.
He was ordered to open Japan for trade with the
nations of the world.
The commodore's mission was successful!
At the end of a hard day's work under the tropical sun
the officers had only one hill left to record. They
decided to use their imagination and fill the area in
with a fictitious image. They drew round a picture in
a magazine creating contours in the form of an
elephant. The substitution remained undetected for
some time and can still be seen on some editions of
the map (as in the version above where the position of
the elephant has been indicated).
http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/lieland/m3-3-1.html
Credits
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imp
erialism/index.cfm
http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Imperi
alism_in_Asia/
http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialis
m/india.cfm
Scramble for Africa
By 1880 European nations only controlled 10% of Africa
The British took the Dutch settlement of Cape Town after the Napoleonic Wars
Boers - Dutch descendents moved northward to avoid the British.
After 1853 the Boers proclaimed political independence and fought the British
By 1880 British and Boer settlers controlled much of South Africa
By 1900 the whole continent had been carved up, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained
free
The most important country was Egypt which was occupied by the British
Suez Canal - built by Ferdinand de Lesseps of France
Disraeli buys 44% - protecting investment from the Egyptians
During the 1700s, British merchants introduced Indian
opium to China
The opium was traded for Chinese tea, which had
become extremely popular in England
Many Chinese citizens became addicted to the drug
Silver flowed out of China in payment for opium
This disrupted the Chinese economy and depleted the
Chinese treasury
Boxer Rebellion
2 November 1899 – 7 September 1901
1800’s China opened for trade
Opium War won by Britain
Open Door Policy
Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists
Antiforeigner feelings
Massacre of foreigners and Chinese Christians
Foreign powers quelled the Rebellion
The Chinese government outlawed opium and executed
drug dealers
They called on Britain to stop the opium trade
The British refused , calling for free trade
In 1839, Chinese warships clashed with British
merchants, triggering the Opium War
British gunboats bombarded Chinese coastal and river
ports
The British used their superior weapons and tactics to
defeat Chinese forces
Unequal Treaties
In 1842, the British made the Chinese accept the Treaty
of Nanjing
Britain received a huge indemnity, or payment for
losses in the war
The British gained the island of Hong Kong
China had to open five ports to foreign trade
British citizens were granted extraterritoriality, the right
to live under their own laws and be tried in their own
courts
This was the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that
forced China to make concessions to western powers
During the mid-1800s, under pressure from the West,
China opened up more ports to foreign trade and let
Christian missionaries into China
As the 19th century ended, the Qing dynasty was in
decline
The Chinese did not like having foreign troops in their
country
They also resented Christian missionaries