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th 19 Century Imperialism The “New” Imperialism Europe’s Race to Grab the World Monroe Doctrine 1823 After the American Revolution, the United States wished to prevent foreign interference in America. The Monroe Doctrine (issued by American President, James Monroe in 1823), alerted European powers that the American continents should not be considered for any future colonization by Europeans. How did the Monroe Doctrine impact revolutions in Latin America? Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent. The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere. Monroe Doctrine The point of view expressed in this political cartoon is that U.S. foreign policy under the Monroe Doctrine protected the Western Hemisphere from hostilities overseas. Imperialism APS Standards Essential Understandings: Industrial nations in Europe needed natural resources and markets to expand their economies. These nations competed to control Africa and Asia to secure their economic and political success. Imperialism spread economic, political, and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world. Resistance to imperialism took many forms including armed conflict and intellectual movements. Imperialism APS Standards Essential Knowledge Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions. European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms. Industrially-produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries. Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences. Imperialism APS Standards Forms of imperialism Colonies Protectorates Spheres of influence Imperialism APS Standards Imperialism occurs when a strong nation takes over a weaker nation or region and dominates its economic, political, or cultural life. Imperialism APS Standards Imperialism in Africa and Asia European domination European conflicts carried to the colonies Christian missionary efforts Spheres of influence in China Suez Canal East India Company’s domination of Indian states American opening of Japan to trade Imperialism APS Standards Responses of colonized peoples Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China) Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s) Forces Enabling African and Indian Imperialism European technological superiority Steamboats Automatic machine gun Locomotive Telegraph Europeans had the means to control their empires Easy travel Wide spread communication African and Indian disunity Huge variety of cultures Fighting among cultures Huge business interests and support from companies Responses of Colonized Peoples Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China) Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s) Social Darwinist View of Imperialism Some Europeans viewed imperialism as a moral responsibility to civilize what they considered primitive cultures Why Imperialize? Industrial nations in Europe needed natural resources and markets to expand their economies. These nations competed to control Africa and Asia to secure their economic and political success. Imperialism spread economic, political, and social philosophies of Europe throughout the world. Vocabulary Imperialism: Policy of building an empire to extend a nation's power and territory - when one country takes over another and its economy, culture and politics. Colony: A settlement of people outside their homeland, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control Vocabulary Protectorate: A country whose policies are guided by a foreign nation Sphere of influence: An area in a country where a foreign power has exclusive rights to trade or invest "Paternalism" comes from the Latin pater, meaning to act like a father, or to treat another person like a child The True Size of Africa Nationalism Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions. European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms. Industrially-produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries. Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences. Suez Canal Europeans needed a faster way to get from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean In 1869, the Suez Canal was completed to connect the Mediterranean to the Red Sea. Suez Canal Great Britain controlled the canal. Known by the British as their “Lifeline to India” Colonial Administrative Styles Direct Rule- Local elites were removed from power and replaced with a new set of officials from the European country Did not attempt to preserve African political institutions French, German and Portuguese style of colonial rule Indirect Rule-Allowed local rulers to maintain positions of authority in the new colonial setting British style of colonial rule British Entrepreneur Cecil Rhodes “We happen to be the best people in the world, with the highest ideals of decency and justice and liberty and peace, and the more of the world we inhabit, the better it is for humanity.” Africa Before and After Colonization "The White Man's Burden" Rudyard Kipling, a British author, wrote a poem called "The White Man's Burden". It describes a sentiment that many Europeans had--that it was the duty of Imperial nations to "raise up" their colonies to European standards of living like: Education, infrastructure, religion, clothing, etc. The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire The only free states remaining in Africa by 1914 were Liberia and Ethiopia. Scramble for Africa 1880 – Most of Africa consisted of independent states 1914 – With the exception of Ethiopia and Liberia, all of Africa was controlled by Europeans Berlin Conference 1884-1885 A conference held in Berlin, Germany that divided the African continent in 50 irregular states among the European powers of: Great Britain, Germany, Portugal and France. There were no Africans represented at the conference. This division of territory did not take into account the thousands of tribes in Africa resulting in some tribes being torn apart and warring tribes now being the same borders. Boer War-1899-1902 An example of a European conflict carrying over to their colonies. The Boer’s were Dutch farmer, also known as Afrikaners who were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of Cape Town and the surrounding areas. British, Dutch (Afrikaner, Boer), Zulu (Natives) fought for control of South Africa. Britain wins. Imperialism in Asia India British East India Company The British East India Company had been given a monopoly of all English trade to Asia by royal grant at its foundation in 1600. The British East India Company dominated trade in India of spices and then later, cotton and silk. India was so profitable, it was called the “Jewel in the Crown.” Life of the British in India British East India Company The Great Rebellion/Sepoy Mutiny British East India company controlled much of India using Sepoys. Sepoys- Indian soldiers, Hindu or Muslim, were hired by the British. Rifle cartridges had to be greased with fat. A soldier had to bite the covering off before the bullet could be inserted into a gun. A rumor of the use of cow or pig fat was used as grease. How was this a problem? Indian Nationalist Party Rise of nationalism in India led to the first Indian nationalist party Founded in 1885 with the objective of obtaining a greater share in government for educated Indians China Trade in China China was in a period of decline by the late 1700s The Industrial Revolution in Europe created a need for raw materials and markets Chinese rulers placed strict limits on foreign traders Trade took place in a small area of southern ChinaCanton Opium for Tea There were no goods China wanted from the West. The British discovered that they could trade the addictive drug opium (from India) for Chinese goods- tea, silk, porcelain. The Chinese did not want opium imported to their country. This conflict resulted in the Opium Wars. The British won the Opium Wars with their superior technology. The Opium Wars-Results 1839–1842, 1856–1860 Opium is made from a poppy- traditionally grown in India. Opium is a highly addictive substance British merchants made huge profits by trading opium grown in India for Chinese tea Many Chinese became addicted to the drug Silver flowed out of China in payment for opium which disrupted the economy and destroyed lives. Boxer Rebellion 2 November 1899 – 7 September 1901 Europeans created spheres of influence in order to trade with China. Boxers were a group of anti-foreigner Chinese. They rebelled against the imperialist European countries that were trading in China. The Boxers revolted to kick the European’s out of China - called the Boxer Rebellion The Europeans defeated the Boxers so that they could keep trading in China Boxers fighting the Eight-Nation Alliance British and Japanese soldiers depicted What does this cartoon represent? A Shocked Mandarin in Manchu Queen Victoria Wilhelm II Germany Nicholas II Russia Marianne France A Japanese samurai Chine “China" in French Open Door Policy 1899 The U.S. wanted an ‘open door policy’ because they were late to imperialize and did not get a sphere of influence. It is a statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. The statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade. Japan Japan In 1854, the United States sent a fleet of battleships to Japan under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy. He was ordered to open Japan for trade with the nations of the world. The commodore's mission was successful! At the end of a hard day's work under the tropical sun the officers had only one hill left to record. They decided to use their imagination and fill the area in with a fictitious image. They drew round a picture in a magazine creating contours in the form of an elephant. The substitution remained undetected for some time and can still be seen on some editions of the map (as in the version above where the position of the elephant has been indicated). http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/lieland/m3-3-1.html Credits http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imp erialism/index.cfm http://www.knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Imperi alism_in_Asia/ http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/imperialis m/india.cfm Scramble for Africa By 1880 European nations only controlled 10% of Africa The British took the Dutch settlement of Cape Town after the Napoleonic Wars Boers - Dutch descendents moved northward to avoid the British. After 1853 the Boers proclaimed political independence and fought the British By 1880 British and Boer settlers controlled much of South Africa By 1900 the whole continent had been carved up, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained free The most important country was Egypt which was occupied by the British Suez Canal - built by Ferdinand de Lesseps of France Disraeli buys 44% - protecting investment from the Egyptians During the 1700s, British merchants introduced Indian opium to China The opium was traded for Chinese tea, which had become extremely popular in England Many Chinese citizens became addicted to the drug Silver flowed out of China in payment for opium This disrupted the Chinese economy and depleted the Chinese treasury Boxer Rebellion 2 November 1899 – 7 September 1901 1800’s China opened for trade Opium War won by Britain Open Door Policy Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists Antiforeigner feelings Massacre of foreigners and Chinese Christians Foreign powers quelled the Rebellion The Chinese government outlawed opium and executed drug dealers They called on Britain to stop the opium trade The British refused , calling for free trade In 1839, Chinese warships clashed with British merchants, triggering the Opium War British gunboats bombarded Chinese coastal and river ports The British used their superior weapons and tactics to defeat Chinese forces Unequal Treaties In 1842, the British made the Chinese accept the Treaty of Nanjing Britain received a huge indemnity, or payment for losses in the war The British gained the island of Hong Kong China had to open five ports to foreign trade British citizens were granted extraterritoriality, the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts This was the first in a series of “unequal treaties” that forced China to make concessions to western powers During the mid-1800s, under pressure from the West, China opened up more ports to foreign trade and let Christian missionaries into China As the 19th century ended, the Qing dynasty was in decline The Chinese did not like having foreign troops in their country They also resented Christian missionaries