Scramble for Africa
The ""Scramble for Africa"" was the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the Partition of Africa and the Conquest of Africa. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under European control; by 1914 it was 90 percent of the continent, with only Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and Liberia still being independent. The only colony the United States had claim to was Liberia which was established by the American Colonization Society on January 7, 1822. The Berlin Conference of 1884, which regulated European colonization and trade in Africa, is usually referred to as the starting point of the Conquest of Africa. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The latter years of the 19th century saw the transition from ""informal imperialism"" (hegemony), by military influence and economic dominance, to the direct rule of a people which brought about colonial imperialism.