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U.S. Imperialism Vocabulary List Imperialism Definition: The actions by which one nation is able to control other, usually, smaller or weaker nations. Strong countries are able to control a weak nation by using military force, political or economic influence. In the case of the United States, the U.S. made several independent nations U.S. territories. Colony Definition: An area that is controlled by or belongs to a country and is usually far away from it. (i.e., The Philippines became a U.S. territory (colony) after the Spanish American War.) U.S. Territory Definition: A geographic area belonging to or under the control of the United States government. (i.e., the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto Rico became United States territories after the Spanish-American War.) U.S. Protectorate Definition: A country that is partly controlled and protected by a more powerful country. (i.e., Cuba became a protectorate of the United States following the conclusion of the Spanish-American War.) Imperialist Definition: An individual who supports the practice and policy of imperialism. (i.e., President Theodore Roosevelt was an imperialist, he believed the United States should build a vast imperial empire throughout Latin America and Asia.) Anti-Imperialist Definition: A person who was against the practice and policy of imperialism. (i.e., Andrew Carnegie was an anti-imperialist, he believed it was wrong for the United States to conquer and control foreign nations.) Isolationist Definition: A person or country that wants to stay out of the political affairs of other countries. (i.e., Japan was an isolationist nation during the early and midnineteenth century.) Empire Definition: A major political unit with a large territory or a number of territories or peoples under one ruler with total authority. (i.e., the U.S. imperial empire included the Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico, Alaska, the Midway Islands, and Hawaii.) Foreign Policy Definition: A government’s strategy in dealing with other nations. Monroe Doctrine (1823) Definition: A statement of United States foreign policy expressing opposition to further European colonization of states in the western hemisphere. Manifest Destiny Definition: The belief that it was the destiny of the United States to expand its rule over the North American continent from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacifica Ocean. This belief was created during the nineteenth century, and completed by the end of the nineteenth century. Expansion (imperialism) Definition: The act of expanding the physical borders and political, economic, and social influence of the United States during the age of imperialism. Annex Definition: To add or take possession of a smaller country. (i.e., During the age of imperialism, the United States annexed Hawaii, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Alaska, the Midway Islands, and Guam. Sphere of Influence Definition: A territorial area over which political or economic influence is wielded by one nation. (i.e., During the age of imperialism, European nations “carved” spheres of influence in China.) Open Door Policy Definition: The policy of granting equal trade opportunities to all countries. (i.e., The United States created the Open Door Policy to have a fair chance in acquiring economic markets in Asia during the age of imperialism. The Open Door Policy was also created to prevent any nations from colonizing parts of China.) Nationalist Definition: A member of a group promoting national independence. (i.e., During the age of imperialism, many nationalist groups (Chinese, Filipinos) fought wars to gain independence from foreign rule or domination.) The Boxer Rebellion Definition: An rebellion carried out by Chinese nationalists (the Righteous Harmony Society) to remove all foreign influences from China. The rebellion was put down by the Eight Nation Alliance and foreign powers continued to politically and economically dominate China. The Boxer Protocol (1901) Definition: A treaty between the Eight Nation Alliance and the Qing government in China that formally ended the Boxer Rebellion. The treaty stated that China must pay 67 million pounds to the members of the Eight Nation Alliance, and allow them to keep foreign troops in Peking. Panama Canal Definition: A canal built across central America to connect the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The canal allowed the United States to move naval and merchant vessels from the Atlantic to the Pacific without having to go around South America. This significantly shortened the amount of time it took for U.S. navy and merchant vessels to get from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish-American War Definition: A war fought between Spain and the United States during 1898. The United States went to war with Spain to help Cuba became an independent nation (from Spanish rule). The war also allowed the United States’ to gain Spain’s colonial empire. The Teller Amendment Definition: An amendment in the war resolution drafted against Spain. The Amendment stated that the United States would not make Cuba a United States territory following the conclusion of the Spanish-American War. The amendment also recognized Cuba as an independent nation. The Platt Amendment Definition: An amendment that granted Cuba independence from the United States (as a protectorate). The amendment also stated that the U.S. government could intervene in Cuba to protect national interests. The amendment also allowed the United States to build a naval base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Yellow Journalism Definition: Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensation and attract readers. (i.e., Yellow journalism played an important role in convincing American citizens to support a war against Spain in 1898.) Treaty of Paris (1898) Definition: The treaty that formally ended the SpanishAmerican War. In the treaty, Spain ceded Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Guam to the United States. In the treaty, the United States purchased the Philippines from Spain for $20 million dollars. Commonwealth Definition: A nation that is controlled by the United States, but has the power to elect local government officials (i.e., governor, local legislature). (i.e., Puerto Rico is a commonwealth of the United States.) Guerilla War Definition: Military actions carried out by small groups of soldiers behind enemy lines with the object of harassing the enemy, interrupting his lines of communication, and destroying his supplies. (i.e., Filipino rebels used guerilla war tactics to fight the United States during the Philippine-American War.) Atrocity Definition: A very cruel or terrible act or action. (i.e., Many atrocities were committed during the Philippine-American War.) The American Anti-Imperialist League Definition: A group of Americans opposed to United States imperialist policy. The organization protested the annexation of the Philippines by the United States. The organization believed imperialism violated the principles of United States democracy. Treaty of Manila (1946) Definition: A treaty signed between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines recognizing the Philippines as an independent nation. The treaty ended U.S. control of the Philippines. Colonize Definition: The act by which a larger nation takes control over a smaller nation. (i.e., the United States colonized the Philippines following the SpanishAmerican War.) Corollary Definition: An addition to a document. (i.e., the Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine.) Roosevelt Corollary Definition: The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition made to the Monroe Doctrine. The Roosevelt Corollary stated that the United States must act as an international police force to maintain political stability in the western hemisphere. The United States used the Roosevelt Corollary to intervene in Latin American nations to protect the United States political and economic interests in the western hemisphere. Dollar diplomacy Definition: A policy created by President Taft to allow the United States to control Latin American nations without actually making them a U.S. territory. The United States did this by supporting and encouraging U.S. businessmen to create economic markets in Latin America. Dollar diplomacy was created to control Latin American nations, while building their economies. Western Hemisphere Definition: The half of the earth including North America, South America, and the surrounding waters.