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USH2 UNIT 2: FACTORS THAT LED TO EXPANSION LESSON 2.2: Expansion leads to Imperialism Unit Overview The purpose of this unit is to understand the factors that led to exploration, settlement, movement, and expansion and their impact on United States development over time. Essential Standards How has the concept of American expansion shaped foreign policy? Activating: Crash Course https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Q16OZkgSXfM Western Frontier – Frederick Jackson Turners Frontier Thesis The Frontier Thesis or Turner Thesis, is the argument advanced by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 that American democracy was formed by the American Frontier. In essence, our frontier experience made us who we are today: risk takers and adventurers, rugged individualists, fiercely independent. In addition Turner emphasizes the need for a “frontier” in order for Americans to remain “cutting edge”. What “Frontiers” do we still have today? Many historians point out today that Turner fails to mention the plight of Native Americans in his Thesis. AP Turners Frontier Thesis Summarize in your own words how Frederick Jackson Turners thesis has impacted American culture. Crash Course https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=Q16OZkgSXfM In your own words, how has westward expansion impacted American culture? Part 2: Expansion Leads to Imperialism Activating: School House Rock https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bs2w4lwQRtc QUICK WRITE: How did our experience in the western frontier help shape modern America? New Markets DURING THE LATE 1800’S, THE DESIRE TO FIND NEW MARKETS, INCREASE TRADE, AND BUILD A POWERFUL NAVY CAUSED THE UNITED STATES TO BECOME MORE INVOLVED IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. Imperialism BUILDING SUPPORT FOR IMPERIALISM IN THE 1800’S, NATIONS IN EUROPE EXPANDED OVERSEAS IMPERIALISM IS A STRONG NATION’S ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DOMINATION OVER WEAKER ONES. CAUSES: EUROPE NEEDED MORE RAW MATERIALS TARIFFS HURT TRADE NEED FOR NEW MARKETS = INDUSTRY TO PROTECT INVESTMENTS, EUROPE MADE COUNTRIES INTO COLONIES AND PROTECTORATES IN A PROTECTORATE, THE IMPERIAL POWER LET LOCAL RULERS STAY IN CONTROL A FEELING OF SUPERIORITY THE UNITED STATES ALSO WANTED TO FIND NEW MARKETS IN OTHER COUNTRIES SOME AMERICANS USED SOCIAL DARWINISM TO JUSTIFY EXPANSION OTHERS BELIEVED THAT ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES WERE NATURALLY SUPERIOR = ANGLO-SAXONISM BUILDING A MODERN NAVY AMERICAN LEADERS THOUGHT THE UNITED STATES NEEDED A POWERFUL NAVY. NAVY COULD PROTECT MERCHANT SHIPS AND DEFEND TRADE BY THE LATE 1800’S THE UNITED STATES WAS BECOMING A GREAT NAVAL POWER. AMERICAN EXPANSION IN THE PACIFIC IN THE 1800’S JAPAN ONLY TRADED WITH THE CHINESE AND DUTCH IN 1853, PRESIDENT FILMORE DECIDED TO FORCE JAPAN TO TRADE WITH THE USA HE SENT A NAVAL EXPEDITION LED BY MATHEW PERRY TO NEGOTIATE A TREATY IN SEEING OUR WARSHIPS, JAPAN KNEW THEY HAD TO OPEN TWO PORTS TO AMERICAN TRADE ANNEXING HAWAII AMERICANS WERE INTERESTED IN HAWAII FOR SUGAR TRADE AND A MILITARY BASE IN 1875 THE UNITED STATES REMOVED TARIFFS ON HAWAIAN SUGAR = SUGAR INDUSTRY BOOMED IN 1887 PLANTERS MADE THE KING SIGN A CONSTITUTION LIMITING HIS POWER ANNEXING HAWAII - CONTINUED IN 1891 QUEEN LILIUOKALANI BECAME RULER = DISLIKED AMERICAN INFLUENCE TRIED TO CREATE A NEW CONSTITUTION TO RE-ESTABLISH HER AUTHORITY PLANTERS RESPONDED BY OVERTHROWING THE GOVERNMENT THE UNITED STATES ANNEXED HAWAII 5 YEARS LATER AP: Imperialism The Spanish American War (Will Cover in depth later in course) What you need to know now: 1) Monroe Doctrine 2) New Markets 3) Reasons to invade Cuba -Yellow Journalism -Explosion of USS Maine 4) Teller Amendment vs. Platt Amendment The Spanish American War https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Lj0nMjuBn4 Assignment “Should we go to war with Spain?” Talking Heads 1’s read “Yes” US Senator Albert J. Beveridge (501 in text) 2 ‘s read “No” William Jennings Bryan (501 in text) Summarize reasons FOR war with Spain (Beveridge): Summarize reasons AGAINST war with Spain (Bryan): Compare and contrast the arguments for and against Imperialism. Activity 1) Persuasive Essay “Should the US have adapted an imperialistic foreign policy during the first half of the 20th century?” 2) Primary source document from the Spanish American War and Yellow Journalism. How does this worksheet relate to the Spanish American War? How does this worksheet relate to the concept of expansion? Persuasive Essay I. Intro (5-7 sentences). Introduce the topic on imperialism. Last sentence should be your thesis statement. “The United States was right/was wrong in adapting imperialistic policies during the late 1800’s. 2. Main body. First paragraph of main body = prove your thesis. Explain your point of view regarding American expansionist policies. The second paragraph of the main body = disprove the opposing views. Explain how the opposing view is wrong. 3. Conclusion. First sentence = restate your thesis. Last chance to prove your thesis! Restate your main arguments, or include additional arguments. Learning Log Today I learned……….. What were Frederick Jackson Turner’s main points in his Frontier Thesis? Why do some historians criticize his Thesis? Summarize the reasons FOR and AGAINST imperialism. How did the United States FORCE Japan to end its isolation? Why did the US move to annex Hawaii? How did expansion influence our decision to go to war with Spain?