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Transcript
The Respiratory System:
Structure
and Function
Overview of
External &
Internal
Respiration
Describe the
anatomy associated
with each of these
functions.
Gross Anatomy of the
Respiratory System
Describe the embryonic
origin of the pharynx and
the respiratory system.
What are the functions of
the respiratory system?
What tissue helps prevent
the collapse of air
passageways in the
trachea, bronchi, and
bronchioles? Identify some
of these by name.
Detailed Anatomy of the Upper Airway
Describe the action that lowers the epiglottis to protect the airway.
How is this different from the function of the superior vocal folds?
Bronchial Tree and Pleural Membranes
Name the epithelium that lines
most of the bronchial tree.
Name the
epithelium of
the pleural
membranes.
Identify this
space.
Quiet exhalation is
“passive”.
Describe why air
leaves the lungs.
Mechanics of
Breathing
Microscopic Anatomy of Lung Lobule
Describe the trends with respect to tissue organization (esp.
the amount of smooth muscle and cartilage, and the type of
epithelium) as you move into smaller branches of the
bronchial tree.
The Respiratory Membrane
Describe the
chemical
nature of
surfactant.
What is its
function?
Why are there
fixed
macrophages
in alveoli?
Factors that Affect the Rate of
Diffusion Across a Membrane
This application of Fick’s Law involves one cell membrane.
Describe all of the layers involved in the diffusion of gasses
across the respiratory membrane.
Neurons in the medulla function as a
central pattern generator
Tonic input from central and
peripheral chemoreceptors
modify the basic pattern.
Which nerves carry
this information to
the medulla?
Identify the type of
muscle tissue in
respiratory muscles.
Explain why
breathing is normally
rhythmic and
unconscious.
Higher
brain
centers
PRG
Central
chemoreceptors
Peripheral
mechano- &
chemoreceptors
DRG
Interaction
important to the
rhythmicity of
breathing
VRG
Stimulates muscles
that keep airway
open; sends info. to
lower motor neurons
of expiratory muscles
to lower
motor
neurons of
inspiratory
muscles
Scheme of Respiratory Center
Function
SAFONOV, T. 2006 HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Vol. 32 No. 1