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Chapter 13 Notes Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection • 5 year voyage on the HMS _________ • Naturalist who collected specimens and studied varieties of plants and animals • Theorized that the fittest (best adapted to that environment) would survive and pass on their genes Evolution • Biological _____________over time (due to mutations) • Some mutations are ________, some bad • Observable (how we know it happened) through extensive ___________record • Natural selection is nature’s way of picking the most ____________traits of a _________ or species and allowing individuals to pass these genes on • Natural selection takes a _________time but eventually produces a population better suited to the environment • Darwin noted that around the world, similar species of animals had a few small _________________that made them better adapted to their individual environment • He theorized that these similar animals came from one common __________________and evolved to better suit the individual environment • Ex: Penicillin when introduced in WWII, killed all bacteria. Gradually some bacteria ____________and were not killed. They reproduced and produced a population of bacteria that are totally ______________to penicillin Adaptations and Natural Selection • _____________—adaptation of copying the appearance of another species for protection • Ex: king snake and coral snake • Camouflage—adaptation that allows organism to blend into its _________________Ex: flounder on ocean floor, walking stick insects • Both adaptations allow organism to escape predators and survive to ________________ Artificial selection • ____________chooses certain traits and breeds for them • Takes a very _____________time to achieve results • Ex: cat born with no tail—these accidental offspring were bred to produce a new breed of cat Evidence for evolution • _________________structures—similar structures in different organisms suggest a common ancestor • _____________structures—different structures with similar functions—suggest evolutionary relationship is not close Evidence for evolution (cont) • _____________structures—body structures no longer used Ex. Appendix, wings in flightless birds • ________________development—suggests common ancestor—many embryos are very similar in early development • Genetic comparisons—using _______________sequences to compare relationships—the more the genetic code is similar, the closer the relationship.