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Transcript
Taxonomy
TAXONOMY:
the science of classification
Classificationthe grouping of
objects or
information
based on
similarities.
ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.)
First taxonomist (“Father of Classification”)
“Mine is the first step and therefore a small one, though worked out with
much thought and hard labor. You, my readers or hearers of my lectures, if
you think I have done as much as can fairly be expected of an initial start …
will acknowledge what I have achieved and will pardon what I have left for
others to accomplish.”
Aristotle created:
TWO KINGDOMS
PLANTS
ANIMALS
Herbs
On Land
Shrubs
In the Air
Trees
In Water
Carolus Linnaeus / Carl von Linne`
The Father of Modern Taxonomy
1707-1778
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
Two word naming system
Genus - first word
Species - second word
Describes a characteristic of the organism
Latin is the language used (some Greek)
(Also called “Linneaus’s system”)
LEVELS OF CLASSIFICATION:
KINGDOM
PHYLUM
“Species”:
organisms that
can interbreed
and produce
fertile offspring
CLASS
0RDER
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
HOW ORGANISMS ARE
CLASSIFIED:
STRUCTURAL
SIMILARITIES
BREEDING
BEHAVIOR
CHROMOSOME BIOCHEMISTRY
COMPARISONS SIMILAR DNA
CLADISTICS
(cladogram)
MODE OF
NUTRITION
GEOGRAPHIC
LOCATION
PHYLOGENY
PROKARYOTE
OR
EUKARYOTE
Theory of Evolution: the change in
populations over time
Charles Darwin (1809 – 1882)
Proposed that species changed over time by
natural selection
Natural selection – organisms with traits suited to
their environment survive and reproduce at a
greater rate than others less suited
Homologous structures – similar structures of
common ancestors
Research was conducted on the Galapagos Islands
Natural Selection:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6La6_kIr9g
THE SIX KINGDOMS
OF LIFE
PLANTS
ANIMALS
FUNGI
PROTISTS
EUBACTERIA
ARCHAEBACTERIA
KINGDOM
ARCHAEBACTERIA
Unicellular
Prokaryotes
Cell walls
Reproduce asexually
(binary fission) and/or
sexually (conjugation)
Live in extreme habitats:
1. Oxygen-free (Methanogens)
2. Salty brines (Halophiles)
3. Hot, acidic H20 (Acidophiles)
KINGDOM EUBACTERIA
Unicellular
Prokaryotes
Cell walls
Binary fission and/or
conjugation
Some are:
1. Parasites
2. Saprophytes (saprobes)
3. Autotrophs
Live everywhere
KINGDOM PROTISTA
Unicellular or multicellular
Eukaryotes
Heterotrophs (protozoans)
and/or autotrophs (algae)
Plantlike (algae), animallike (protozoans) or
funguslike
Sexual and/or asexual
reproduction
Found in aquatic habitats
KINGDOM FUNGI
Multicellular (most)
Eukaryotes
Absorptive heterotrophs
(extracellular digestion)
Cell walls (made of chitin)
Sexual and/or asexual
reproduction – by spores
Found in damp, dark
environments
KINGDOM PLANTAE
Multicellular
Eukaryotes
Autotrophs/ photosynthesis
Cell walls (made of cellulose)
Sexual reproduction (most) by
seeds or spores
Found on all types of land
KINGDOM ANIMALIA
Multicellular
Eukaryotes
Ingestive heterotrophs
Cell membranes
Specialized cells
Sexual reproduction (most)
by eggs & sperm
Found everywhere
THE END!