5.12(A)The student knows that the natural world includes earth materials and objects in the sky. The student is expected to interpret how land forms are the result of a combination of constructive and destructive forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering. 1. The sides of the Grand Canyon show many different layers of rock. Which statement describes how the Grand Canyon was formed? A. The canyon has a waterfall. B. Big rainstorms washed rocks out of the canyon. C. A flowing river cut into rocks to form the canyon. D. The canyon was formed from the uplifting of rock. The correct answer is: C. A flowing river cut into the rocks to form the canyon. These answers are incorrect because: A. Canyons are deep, narrow valleys and would not be formed from a waterfall. B. Rainstorms provide the water that weathers the rock. D. Uplifting of rock forms mountains. 2. Which is an example of a feature on the Earth’s surface caused by the force of wind? A. Limestone rocks B. Sandbars C. Limestone caves D. Sand dunes The correct answer is: D. sand dunes. These answers are incorrect because: A. Limestone rocks are formed when layers of sediment are deposited. B. Sandbars are formed on the ocean floor when waves move water over the sand. C. Limestone caves are formed when water dissolves rock. 3. Which process is NOT caused by the movement of Earth's plates? A. Ocean island formation B. Weathering C. Mountain building D. Volcanic eruption The correct answer is: B. weathering The answers A, C, D are incorrect because: Ocean island formation, mountain building and volcanic eruptions are all caused by the movement of the Earth’s plates. 4. People living on the Texas Gulf Coast have to place stone barriers along the shoreline to prevent wearing away of coastal land by wave action. This process is called: A. Erosion B. Weathering C. Plate tectonics D. Deposition The correct answer is: A. erosion. These answers are incorrect because: B. Weathering is the breaking down of rock into smaller particles. C. Plate tectonics is a theory that explains the movements of the Earth’s plates. D. Deposition is the process of depositing sediment in a new location. 5. Names and dates on cemetery tombstones are often worn away by the constant exposure to wind, rain and frost. This process is known as: A. Erosion B. Frost action C. Volcanic action D. Weathering The correct answer is: D. Weathering. These answers are incorrect because: A. Erosion process of moving sediment from one place to another. B. Frost action is the repeated freezing and thawing of water in cracks in rocks. C. Volcanic action results in the formation of igneous rock. 6. Rivers running quickly through the same area for millions of years would likely form: A. Mountains B. Volcanoes C. Valleys D. Glaciers The correct answer is: C. Valleys. These answers are incorrect because: A. Mountains are formed from the uplifting of rock. B. Volcanoes are formed from molten rock. D. Glaciers are formed by ice.