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Transcript
Log: 1/18
Page 32 Planet Diary
Define: Mineral, inorganic,
crystal, streak and luster
Movie
Log:1/22
Define the remaining words
on page 33.
Pick up notes

Chapter 2
Minerals and Rocks
Table of Contents
2.1 Properties of Minerals
2.2 Classifying Rocks
2.3 Igneous Rocks
2.4 Sedimentary Rocks
2.5 Metamorphic Rocks
2.6 The Rock Cycle
Properties of Minerals
Are They or Aren’t They?
To be classified as a mineral, a substance must satisfy five requirements.
Defining Minerals
Crystal Structure
and Solid
 Have flat sides called
faces
 Produced by a repeating
pattern of atoms (ions or
molecules)
Naturally Occurring
 Means formed by a
natural process.
Defining Minerals
Inorganic
 Are formed from none
living things.
Definite Chemical
Composition
 The mineral always
contains specific
element in definite
proportions.
Elements
Pure substances that can't be broken
down by in to simpler substances
All minerals contain 1 or more of 92
elements
Atoms and Elements
 Elements are made of one kind of atom
 Atom are the smallest part of any element that has all the
properties
 When two or more elements combine it makes a compound
 Example
How Minerals are Identified
2.2
Page 35
Each mineral has characteristic
properties that can be used to
identify it.
 Luster
 Streak
 Color
 Hardness
 Density
 Crystal Structure
 Cleavage and Fracture
 Special Properties
Luster- How the material reflects light
3 main types of luster
Metallic-shiny, bright and reflective
Looks like a metal
Example : silver, copper, etc
Waxy , Greasy or Pearly
Pollucite
 Glassy –
Sphalerite
 example: quartz, tourmaline
 Resinous (like resin or sap from a
tree) –
 example: sphalerite
 Greasy or waxy –
 example: turquoise
Nepheline
and
cancrinite
Silky
 Silky – having the look of
silk, fine parallel fibers of
mineral
 example: asbestos
Stellerite
Gypsum
Streak
The color of powder form of the
mineral left on a porcelain plate
called a streak plate (must be softer
than the porcelain)
The streak color is not effected by
environment so it more reliable than
color
Hardness
Hardness
How easily the
mineral can be
scratched
Can be
compared to
the hardness
of other
minerals by
using the Mohs
scale
Hardness
Density
Ratio of mass to volume
Determined by the mass of the
atoms and how close they are
Clip
Cleavage
The way the
mineral splits along
flat surfaces or
tendency to break
smooth
Determined by the
arrangement of the
atoms
Not all minerals
have cleavage
Fracture
 The tendency to break unevenly along curved or irregular
surfaces
 These minerals do not have planes of weakness and
break irregularly.
Log: Jan. 24th
 What do geologist use to determine how hard a mineral
is?
 What are the 3 types of luster?
 What things can I use to identify minerals?
Special Properties page 73
 Fluorescent
 Magnetism
 Taste
 Chemical Reaction
 Optical Properties
 Radioactivity
Fluorescent Minerals
Color
Color by itself IS NOT sufficient to
identify a mineral
The same mineral can be found in a
variety of colors
Things that change color
Impurities
Exposure to air or water (other elements)
How Do Minerals form???
1. Organic Process
2. Crystalized from Solutions
3. Crystalized as lava or Magma Cool
Organic Minerals
• Different animals
produce shells and
skeletons.
• Examples: Clams
and Coral can
produce calcite.
Solution Minerals
Solution – a mixture in which a
substance is dissolved in another.
• Two Forms of solution Minerals
1. Evaporation- when the water in
salt water evaporates it leaves
halite.
2. Hot Water solution- Hot water can
dissolve elements and compounds
that form minerals once the cool.
Magma and Lava Formations
Minerals form once hot magma
or lava cool.
Magma
Cools slowly below
the surface and
forms large crystals.
Example: Quartz,
mica and tourmaline
Properties of Minerals
Complete the graphic
organizer to show how a
geode forms in four
steps.
Log: 1/27
Read Lab Worksheet
Open book for HW check. Trade
with someone at your table.
What is the purpose of
determining a minerals streak
Color?
Log: 1/25
 What is density?
 How do you calculate density?
 How do you measure mass?
 How do you measure volume?
 Take out HW
Lesson 2
Classifying Rocks
Page 44
Log: 1/30
 Read and answer questions form planet diary page 44
How do Geologist Classify p.45
 To Study rock samples geologist observe the rock’s
mineral composition, color and texture.
Mineral Composition and Color
 Rock can be composed of
one mineral or more.
 Rock- forming minerals.
 20 different minerals
make up majority of the
rock found in the Earth
Crust.
 Granite- light color with
high silica (made with
silicone and oxygen)
content.
 Basalt- dark color, low
silica ,tiny mineral
crystals
Texture- look and feel of rocks
surface.
Grain Shape
Grains-give the rock
texture
 Grain Pattern
 Grain Size
Rock Origins
Rocks are classified by the way they formed.
Three Main Groups
Rock Types
Form
Igneous-
Cooling magma or lava
Sedimentary
When small remains of plants and animals are
pressed together
Metamorphic
When rock are changed by heat or pressure.
Changed by chemical reaction
Log: 1/31
Read lab
What safety things do you need
for this lab?
How many drops of wax go into
the hot water?
What is the spoon used for?
Show me your ready by prepping
your desk.
Igneous Rock
Classification
Origin and Texture
Origin
Example Grain Crystals
Mineral Composition
Extrusive
Lava
cooling
quickly
Basalt
Fine
Small
Crystals
Low in silica
Intrusive
Magma
Harden
ing
slowly
Granite
Corse
Large
Crystals
High silica
Igneous Rock
Igneous Rock Origins and Textures
The texture of igneous rock varies according to its origin.
Igneous Rock Used
 Tools
 Building Materials
 Kitchen and bathroom counters
 Walk ways
Log: 2/6
What are the 3 main types of
sedimentary rock?
What is weathering?
Sedimentary
Sedimentary Rocks
How Sedimentary Rock Forms
Sedimentary rocks form through a series of
processes over millions of years.
Sedimentary Rocks
Put the terms listed in the word bank in the proper sequence to show how
mountains can change into sedimentary rock.
Clastic Rocks
• Formed from rock fragments
• Classified by size of fragments
Sedimentary Rocks pg 55
Organic Rocks
How do coal and limestone form?
• Organic rocks form from living things such as plants and animal
remains.
Chemical Rocks
Examples
Limestone formed
from calcite
Halite
Forms
• When minerals
dissolved in
water solution
crystalizes.
• Evaporation salt water
minerals.
Sedimentary Rocks
Form
Sequence
Major
Types
Examples
Using a
sequence
of events
• Weathering or
erosion
• Deposition
• Compaction
• Cementation
1. Organic
2. Chemical
3. Clastic
1. Coal Limestone
2. Limestone and
halite
3. Shale, sandstone,
conglomerate
Metamorphic Rocks
Form
Major Types
Examples
Used
Igneous or
sedimentary
change due
to heat or
pressure.
(other
metamorphic
rocks)
1. Foliated
(parallel
grains)
2. Non-foliated
(random
grains)
1. Granite >Gneiss
1. Marble
2. Quartzite> sandstone 2. slate
Metamorphic Rocks
Metamorphic Rock
Great heat and pressure can change one type of rock into another. Are
these types of rock sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic? Which rock
can form from the other rock?
The Rock Cycle
The Rock Cycle
Through melting,
weathering and erosion,
and heat and pressure, the
rock cycle constantly
changes rocks from one
type into another type.
The Rock Cycle
The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics
New rock forms on the ocean floor at the mid-Atlantic ridge. Here, two
plates move apart.