Log: 1/18 Page 32 Planet Diary Define: Mineral, inorganic, crystal, streak and luster Movie Log:1/22 Define the remaining words on page 33. Pick up notes Chapter 2 Minerals and Rocks Table of Contents 2.1 Properties of Minerals 2.2 Classifying Rocks 2.3 Igneous Rocks 2.4 Sedimentary Rocks 2.5 Metamorphic Rocks 2.6 The Rock Cycle Properties of Minerals Are They or Aren’t They? To be classified as a mineral, a substance must satisfy five requirements. Defining Minerals Crystal Structure and Solid Have flat sides called faces Produced by a repeating pattern of atoms (ions or molecules) Naturally Occurring Means formed by a natural process. Defining Minerals Inorganic Are formed from none living things. Definite Chemical Composition The mineral always contains specific element in definite proportions. Elements Pure substances that can't be broken down by in to simpler substances All minerals contain 1 or more of 92 elements Atoms and Elements Elements are made of one kind of atom Atom are the smallest part of any element that has all the properties When two or more elements combine it makes a compound Example How Minerals are Identified 2.2 Page 35 Each mineral has characteristic properties that can be used to identify it. Luster Streak Color Hardness Density Crystal Structure Cleavage and Fracture Special Properties Luster- How the material reflects light 3 main types of luster Metallic-shiny, bright and reflective Looks like a metal Example : silver, copper, etc Waxy , Greasy or Pearly Pollucite Glassy – Sphalerite example: quartz, tourmaline Resinous (like resin or sap from a tree) – example: sphalerite Greasy or waxy – example: turquoise Nepheline and cancrinite Silky Silky – having the look of silk, fine parallel fibers of mineral example: asbestos Stellerite Gypsum Streak The color of powder form of the mineral left on a porcelain plate called a streak plate (must be softer than the porcelain) The streak color is not effected by environment so it more reliable than color Hardness Hardness How easily the mineral can be scratched Can be compared to the hardness of other minerals by using the Mohs scale Hardness Density Ratio of mass to volume Determined by the mass of the atoms and how close they are Clip Cleavage The way the mineral splits along flat surfaces or tendency to break smooth Determined by the arrangement of the atoms Not all minerals have cleavage Fracture The tendency to break unevenly along curved or irregular surfaces These minerals do not have planes of weakness and break irregularly. Log: Jan. 24th What do geologist use to determine how hard a mineral is? What are the 3 types of luster? What things can I use to identify minerals? Special Properties page 73 Fluorescent Magnetism Taste Chemical Reaction Optical Properties Radioactivity Fluorescent Minerals Color Color by itself IS NOT sufficient to identify a mineral The same mineral can be found in a variety of colors Things that change color Impurities Exposure to air or water (other elements) How Do Minerals form??? 1. Organic Process 2. Crystalized from Solutions 3. Crystalized as lava or Magma Cool Organic Minerals • Different animals produce shells and skeletons. • Examples: Clams and Coral can produce calcite. Solution Minerals Solution – a mixture in which a substance is dissolved in another. • Two Forms of solution Minerals 1. Evaporation- when the water in salt water evaporates it leaves halite. 2. Hot Water solution- Hot water can dissolve elements and compounds that form minerals once the cool. Magma and Lava Formations Minerals form once hot magma or lava cool. Magma Cools slowly below the surface and forms large crystals. Example: Quartz, mica and tourmaline Properties of Minerals Complete the graphic organizer to show how a geode forms in four steps. Log: 1/27 Read Lab Worksheet Open book for HW check. Trade with someone at your table. What is the purpose of determining a minerals streak Color? Log: 1/25 What is density? How do you calculate density? How do you measure mass? How do you measure volume? Take out HW Lesson 2 Classifying Rocks Page 44 Log: 1/30 Read and answer questions form planet diary page 44 How do Geologist Classify p.45 To Study rock samples geologist observe the rock’s mineral composition, color and texture. Mineral Composition and Color Rock can be composed of one mineral or more. Rock- forming minerals. 20 different minerals make up majority of the rock found in the Earth Crust. Granite- light color with high silica (made with silicone and oxygen) content. Basalt- dark color, low silica ,tiny mineral crystals Texture- look and feel of rocks surface. Grain Shape Grains-give the rock texture Grain Pattern Grain Size Rock Origins Rocks are classified by the way they formed. Three Main Groups Rock Types Form Igneous- Cooling magma or lava Sedimentary When small remains of plants and animals are pressed together Metamorphic When rock are changed by heat or pressure. Changed by chemical reaction Log: 1/31 Read lab What safety things do you need for this lab? How many drops of wax go into the hot water? What is the spoon used for? Show me your ready by prepping your desk. Igneous Rock Classification Origin and Texture Origin Example Grain Crystals Mineral Composition Extrusive Lava cooling quickly Basalt Fine Small Crystals Low in silica Intrusive Magma Harden ing slowly Granite Corse Large Crystals High silica Igneous Rock Igneous Rock Origins and Textures The texture of igneous rock varies according to its origin. Igneous Rock Used Tools Building Materials Kitchen and bathroom counters Walk ways Log: 2/6 What are the 3 main types of sedimentary rock? What is weathering? Sedimentary Sedimentary Rocks How Sedimentary Rock Forms Sedimentary rocks form through a series of processes over millions of years. Sedimentary Rocks Put the terms listed in the word bank in the proper sequence to show how mountains can change into sedimentary rock. Clastic Rocks • Formed from rock fragments • Classified by size of fragments Sedimentary Rocks pg 55 Organic Rocks How do coal and limestone form? • Organic rocks form from living things such as plants and animal remains. Chemical Rocks Examples Limestone formed from calcite Halite Forms • When minerals dissolved in water solution crystalizes. • Evaporation salt water minerals. Sedimentary Rocks Form Sequence Major Types Examples Using a sequence of events • Weathering or erosion • Deposition • Compaction • Cementation 1. Organic 2. Chemical 3. Clastic 1. Coal Limestone 2. Limestone and halite 3. Shale, sandstone, conglomerate Metamorphic Rocks Form Major Types Examples Used Igneous or sedimentary change due to heat or pressure. (other metamorphic rocks) 1. Foliated (parallel grains) 2. Non-foliated (random grains) 1. Granite >Gneiss 1. Marble 2. Quartzite> sandstone 2. slate Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic Rock Great heat and pressure can change one type of rock into another. Are these types of rock sedimentary, igneous, or metamorphic? Which rock can form from the other rock? The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle Through melting, weathering and erosion, and heat and pressure, the rock cycle constantly changes rocks from one type into another type. The Rock Cycle The Rock Cycle and Plate Tectonics New rock forms on the ocean floor at the mid-Atlantic ridge. Here, two plates move apart.