Lesson 1 KWL…. about chemistry, atom, periodic table, compounds 8.P.1 Understand the properties of matter and changes that occur when matter interacts in an open and closed container. 8.P.1.1 Classify matter as elements, compounds, or mixtures based on how the atoms are packed together in arrangements. Everything around you is made up of either MATTER or ENERGY. MATTER is anything with mass and volume, no matter the size. The periodic table is a summary of all ELEMENTS in the universe, which make up MATTER. An ELEMENT is the most basic kind of matter and CAN NOT be broken down into simpler substances. ELEMENTS are pure. Matter – anything that has mass and volume…IN OTHER WORDS… EVERYTHING IS MATTER! YES….U Lil Darling..MATTER… @ least to ME There are 3 States of Matter…what are they? Solid, Liquid & Gas…& ? (1) Students represent All matter is made up of atoms So what’s an atom? An atom is the smallest part of whatever it makes up It would take YOU about 500 years to count the # of atoms in a grain of salt! ….o my! contains millions of atoms! Atoms make up elements So what’s an element? Elements are substances that are made up of only one type of atom (There are over 100 different elements & each element is made of a different atom) Brain Break!! http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=D-iPPwDAk1Q 1st Verse: They’re tiny and they’re teeny, Much smaller than a beany, They never can be seeny, The Atoms Family. 2nd Verse: Together they make gases, And liquids like molasses, And all the solid masses, The Atoms Family Chorus 3rd Verse: Neutrons can be found, Where protons hang around; Electrons they surround The Atoms Family. Chorus Chorus: They are So small. (Snap, snap) They are Round Like a ball. (Snap, snap) They Make up the Air They’re every where Can’t see them at all. (Snap, snap) http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=play er_detailpage&v=Uy0m7jnyv6U http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uy0m7jn yv6U Universe = Hydrogen (about 90% of total mass of Universe) Atmosphere = Nitrogen (about 78%) Humans = Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Humans are 61-65% Oxygen! “CHON” Carbon Nitrogen Hydrogen Oxygen 1) Areas where they are found (EX: Magnesium ~ Greek region of Magnesia 2) Greek Words (it’s all GREEK to me ) (EX: Lithium ~ “Lithos” meaning stone in Greek 3) Planets (EX: Neptunium ~ Neptune) 4) After Scientists (EX: A very smart person?? Einsteinium) 5) Latin Words (EX: Gold ~ Aurum = Au) H & O sitting in a bar….. LOL!!! Atoms are made of even smaller parts SohNucleus – the center of an atom Electron Cloud: all of the electrons circling together around the nucleus Protons Protons positive charge Neutrons have a Neutrons have no charge For U Mr. Neutron…. R-U-Sure?? BOTH are found inside of the nucleus Electron Cloud: ◦ Electrons have a negative charge ◦ Electrons are MUCH smaller than protons or neutrons (2000 Xs smaller) ◦ Electrons orbit the nucleus on paths called energy levels (rings or shells) *ELECTRONS will always orbit around the nucleus in the ELECTRON CLOUD (TVs, computers…images created by moving electron beam) Overall charge of nucleus = + Overall charge of electron cloud = --- ***Opposite charges attract & Like charges repel!!*** A c t u a l O y g e n A t o m Elements go in order based on Atomic Number (= # of protons) Symbol & Name Atomic Mass = protons + neutrons, decimal because it is average of all isotopes of element Electrons = same # as Protons (if neutral atom!) To find # of neutrons: SUBTRACT Atomic # from Atomic Mass # (rounded) Atomic Number = The number of protons In a neutral atom, the number of protons is equal to the number of electrons Atomic Mass = The number …of protons + number of neutrons inside the nucleus SYMBOL RULES: ELEMENT SYMBOLS START WITH A CAPITAL LETTER…any other letters in the symbol are lower case….. Co ≠ CO !! Atomic Number Symbol Name Atomic Mass Atomic number equals the number of ____________ or ________________. Atomic mass equals the number of ______________ + _______________. To find the number of neutrons: 1.Round the Atomic Mass (P + N) to a whole number 2.Atomic Mass – Atomic Number = # of Neutrons The Atoms Family from Matterville In the center of Matterville, Name: there is a place called the Patty Proton Nucleus Arcade, where two members of the Atoms Family Description: like to hang out. Perky Patty Positive Proton, like her sisters, is quite Favorite Activity: large with a huge smile and eyes Hanging out at the Nucleus that sparkle (+). Patty is always Arcade happy and has a very positive Name: personality. Nerdy Nelda Nelda Neutron Neutron is large like Patty, but she has a boring, flat mouth and Description: eyes with zero expression (o). Neutral Patty, Nelda, and their sisters Favorite Activity: spend all their time at the arcade. Hanging out at the Nucleus Arcade Around the Nucleus Arcade, you will find a series of roadways that are used by the brothers in the Atoms Family. Elliott Electron races madly around the Arcade on his go-kart. He rides so fast that no one can be sure where he is at any time. Elliott is much smaller than Patty and Nelda and he is always angry because his big sisters will not let him in the Arcade. He has a frown on his face, eyes that are squinted with anger, and a very negative (-) attitude. Elliot and his brothers are forced to hang out on the streets outside the arcade. Name: Elliott Electron Description: Negative Favorite Activity: Racing around the arcade Energy Street can only hold 2 Electron brothers. The second street, called the Energy Freeway, can hold 8 brothers. The third energy street, called the Energy Superhighway, can hold 8 of the brothers. 2nd Energy Level “Energy Freeway” 3rd Energy Level “Energy Superhighway” Can hold 8 electrons Can hold 8 electrons First Energy Level “Energy Street” Can hold 2 electrons Nucleus “Arcade” Contains protons & neutrons MATTERVILLE IS NEUTRAL AS LONG AS IT HAS THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS (+) AND ELECTRONS (-) SO THE TOWN HAS A BALANCED CHARGE! BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT DOESN’T? …TO BE CONTINUED! Bohr Model of the atom: All of the protons and the neutrons The 3rd ring can hold up to 8 e- The 1st ring can hold up to 2 eThe 2nd ring can hold up to 8 e- As a class: Boron On your own: Oxygen Lithium Draw on page 2 ..chem book, balance cups on ruler..add b.soda to vinegar in a separate container…pour into one of the cups…”scale” changes as gas is poured into cup Lesson 2 FIRST OF ALL, WHAT IS AN ATOM? PROTON? NEUTRON? ELECTRON? ATOMIC NUMBER? ATOMIC MASS? ELEMENT? …CONTINUED MATTERVILLE IS NEUTRAL AS LONG AS IT HAS THE SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS (+) AND ELECTRONS (-) SO THE TOWN HAS A BALANCED CHARGE! BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT DOESN’T? Need to be stable ---a stable atom has a complete outer shell of electrons outer shell of electrons are called valence electrons the number of electrons in the outer shell = valence # Need to have a neutral overall charge ---if an atom has gained or lost e- in order to become stable, it will bond with another atom(s) that have an opposite charge in order to be neutral Ions are atoms that have a charge (either + or - ) Ions form when an atom gains or loses electrons Gain (take) an electron = negative charge Lose (give) an electron = positive charge Matterville is neutral as long as each negative Electron brother is balanced out by one positive Proton sister. The number of residents in Matterville depends on the total number of Proton and Neutron families. Challenge: What would happen in Matterville if one Electron brother was kidnapped? Challenge 2: What would happen in Matterville if Electron Eddie, a cousin, moved to Matterville? ISOTOPES: atoms of the same element with a different # of NEUTRONS. To find ATOMIC MASS # OF ISOTOPES: Add PROTONS + NEUTRONS EX: Chlorine atoms – 17 protons However..some Cl atoms have 18 neutrons; some have 20 neutrons Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons. Gaining or losing a neutron is like gaining or losing weight…same identity, different mass! The number of protons determines what element it is! This is the element’s IDENTITY! Atoms that lose protons are called radioactive.