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Transcript
Lesson 1
KWL…. about chemistry, atom, periodic table,
compounds
8.P.1 Understand the properties of matter
and changes that occur when matter
interacts in an open and closed container.
8.P.1.1 Classify matter as elements,
compounds, or mixtures based on how
the atoms are packed together in
arrangements.

Everything around you is made up of
either MATTER or ENERGY.

MATTER is anything with mass and
volume, no matter the size.


The periodic table is a summary of
all ELEMENTS in the universe, which
make up MATTER.
An ELEMENT is the most basic kind
of matter and CAN NOT be broken
down into simpler substances.
ELEMENTS are pure.
Matter – anything that has
mass and volume…IN OTHER
WORDS…
EVERYTHING IS MATTER!
YES….U Lil Darling..MATTER…
@ least to ME 

There are 3 States of
Matter…what are they?
Solid, Liquid & Gas…& ?
(1)
Students represent 
 All
matter is made up of
atoms
So what’s an atom?
An atom is the smallest part
of whatever it makes up
 It
would take
YOU about
500 years to
count the #
of atoms in a
grain of salt!
….o my!
contains
millions
of
atoms!
 Atoms
make up elements
So what’s an element?
Elements are substances that are
made up of only one type of
atom
(There are over 100 different elements &
each
element is made of a different
atom)
Brain Break!!
http://www.youtube.com/wat
ch?v=D-iPPwDAk1Q
1st Verse:
They’re tiny and they’re
teeny,
Much smaller than a beany,
They never can be seeny,
The Atoms Family.
2nd Verse:
Together they make gases,
And liquids like molasses,
And all the solid masses,
The Atoms Family
Chorus
3rd Verse:
Neutrons can be found,
Where protons hang
around;
Electrons they surround
The Atoms Family.
Chorus
Chorus:
They are So small.
(Snap, snap)
They are Round Like a
ball.
(Snap, snap)
They Make up the Air
They’re every where
Can’t see them at all.
(Snap, snap)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=play
er_detailpage&v=Uy0m7jnyv6U
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uy0m7jn
yv6U




Universe = Hydrogen (about 90% of total mass of
Universe)
Atmosphere = Nitrogen (about 78%)
Humans = Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Humans are 61-65% Oxygen!
“CHON”
 Carbon
Nitrogen
Hydrogen
Oxygen






1) Areas where they are found (EX:
Magnesium ~ Greek region of Magnesia
2) Greek Words (it’s all GREEK to me ) (EX:
Lithium ~ “Lithos” meaning stone in Greek
3) Planets (EX: Neptunium ~ Neptune)
4) After Scientists (EX: A very smart person??
Einsteinium)
5) Latin Words (EX: Gold ~ Aurum = Au)
H & O sitting in a bar….. LOL!!! 
 Atoms
are made of even smaller
parts
SohNucleus – the center of an atom
Electron Cloud: all of the
electrons circling together around
the nucleus
Protons
 Protons
positive
charge

Neutrons
have a
 Neutrons
have
no charge

For U Mr. Neutron…. 
R-U-Sure?? 
BOTH are found
inside of the
nucleus
Electron Cloud:
◦ Electrons have a negative charge
◦ Electrons are MUCH smaller than
protons or neutrons (2000 Xs smaller)
◦ Electrons orbit the nucleus on paths
called energy levels (rings or shells)
*ELECTRONS will always
orbit around the nucleus
in the ELECTRON CLOUD
(TVs, computers…images
created by moving
electron beam)
Overall charge of nucleus = +
Overall charge of electron cloud = ---
***Opposite charges attract & Like
charges repel!!***
A
c
t
u
a
l
O
y
g
e
n
A
t
o
m





Elements go in order
based on Atomic Number
(= # of protons)
Symbol & Name
Atomic Mass = protons +
neutrons, decimal
because it is average of
all isotopes of element
Electrons = same # as
Protons (if neutral
atom!)
To find # of neutrons:
SUBTRACT Atomic # from
Atomic Mass # (rounded)
 Atomic
Number
= The number
of protons
In a neutral atom, the
number of protons is
equal to the number
of electrons
 Atomic
Mass =
The number …of
protons +
number of
 neutrons inside
the nucleus
SYMBOL RULES:
ELEMENT SYMBOLS
START WITH A CAPITAL
LETTER…any other
letters in the symbol
are lower case…..
Co ≠ CO !!
Atomic Number
Symbol
Name
Atomic Mass



Atomic number equals the number
of ____________ or ________________.
Atomic mass equals the number of
______________ + _______________.
To find the number of neutrons:
1.Round the Atomic Mass (P + N) to
a whole number
2.Atomic Mass – Atomic Number
= # of Neutrons 
The Atoms Family from Matterville
In the center of Matterville,
Name:
there is a place called the
Patty Proton
Nucleus Arcade, where two
members of the Atoms Family Description:
like to hang out. Perky Patty Positive
Proton, like her sisters, is quite Favorite Activity:
large with a huge smile and eyes Hanging out at the Nucleus
that sparkle (+). Patty is always Arcade
happy and has a very positive
Name:
personality.
Nerdy
Nelda
Nelda Neutron
Neutron is large like Patty, but
she has a boring, flat mouth and Description:
eyes with zero expression (o). Neutral
Patty, Nelda, and their sisters Favorite Activity:
spend all their time at the arcade.
Hanging out at the Nucleus
Arcade
Around the Nucleus Arcade, you
will find a series of roadways that
are used by the brothers in the
Atoms Family. Elliott Electron
races madly around the Arcade on
his go-kart. He rides so fast that no
one can be sure where he is at any
time. Elliott is much smaller than
Patty and Nelda and he is always
angry because his big sisters will
not let him in the Arcade. He has a
frown on his face, eyes that are
squinted with anger, and a very
negative (-) attitude. Elliot and his
brothers are forced to hang out on
the streets outside the arcade.
Name:
Elliott Electron
Description:
Negative
Favorite Activity:
Racing around the arcade
Energy Street can only hold 2
Electron brothers. The second
street, called the Energy Freeway,
can hold 8 brothers. The third
energy street, called the Energy
Superhighway, can hold 8 of the
brothers.
2nd Energy Level
“Energy Freeway”
3rd Energy Level
“Energy Superhighway”
Can hold 8 electrons
Can hold 8
electrons
First Energy
Level
“Energy Street”
Can hold 2
electrons
Nucleus
“Arcade”
Contains protons & neutrons
MATTERVILLE IS NEUTRAL AS
LONG AS IT HAS THE SAME
NUMBER OF PROTONS (+) AND
ELECTRONS (-) SO THE TOWN HAS
A BALANCED CHARGE!
BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT
DOESN’T?
…TO BE CONTINUED!

Bohr Model of the atom:
All of the
protons and
the neutrons
The 3rd
ring can
hold up to
8 e-
The 1st ring can
hold up to 2 eThe 2nd ring can
hold up to 8 e-
As a class:
 Boron
On your own:
 Oxygen
 Lithium
Draw on page 2
..chem book, balance cups on ruler..add b.soda
to vinegar in a separate container…pour into one
of the cups…”scale” changes as gas is poured
into cup
Lesson 2
 FIRST
OF ALL, WHAT IS AN ATOM?
 PROTON?
 NEUTRON?
 ELECTRON?
 ATOMIC NUMBER?
 ATOMIC MASS?
 ELEMENT?
…CONTINUED
MATTERVILLE IS NEUTRAL AS
LONG AS IT HAS THE SAME
NUMBER OF PROTONS (+) AND
ELECTRONS (-) SO THE TOWN HAS
A BALANCED CHARGE!
BUT WHAT HAPPENS WHEN IT
DOESN’T?
Need to be stable
---a stable atom has a complete outer shell of
electrons
outer shell of electrons are called valence
electrons
the number of electrons in the outer shell =
valence #
Need to have a neutral overall charge
---if an atom has gained or lost e- in order to
become stable, it will bond with another atom(s)
that have an opposite charge in order to be
neutral
Ions are atoms that have a charge
(either + or - )
 Ions form when an atom gains or loses
electrons

Gain (take) an electron = negative
charge
 Lose (give) an electron = positive
charge

Matterville is neutral as long as each negative Electron brother is
balanced out by one positive Proton sister. The number of residents
in Matterville depends on the total number of Proton and Neutron
families.
Challenge: What would happen in Matterville if one Electron brother
was kidnapped?
Challenge 2: What would happen in Matterville if Electron Eddie, a
cousin, moved to Matterville?
ISOTOPES: atoms of the
same element with a
different # of
NEUTRONS.
To find ATOMIC MASS #
OF ISOTOPES:
Add PROTONS +
NEUTRONS
EX: Chlorine atoms – 17
protons
However..some Cl atoms
have 18 neutrons;
some have 20 neutrons
 Isotopes
are atoms of the same
element that have a different
number of neutrons.
 Gaining or losing a neutron is like
gaining or losing weight…same
identity, different mass!
 The
number of protons
determines what element it is!
 This is the element’s IDENTITY!
 Atoms that lose protons are called
radioactive.