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Transcript
Post-2012 Scenarios
Elements of the BASIC Sao Paoulo Proposal
Benito Müller
european capacity building initiative
ecbi
european capacity building initiative
initiative européenne de renforcement des capacités
ecbi
for sustained capacity building in support of international climate change negotiations
pour un renforcement durable des capacités en appui aux négociations internationales
sur les changements climatiques
european capacity building initiative
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Task 4 – Designing international climate change policy and
enhancing negotiations skills (Brazil Team)
european capacity building initiative
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Core Elements 2 – 4:* Annex I Commitments
Core Element 2: Commitments of Annex I/B Parties
european capacity building initiative
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Annex B is amended to list the annual emissions caps of each
Annex I Party from 2013 through 2018 in tCO2e/year.
After the commitments have been agreed each Party may choose to
convert its commitment into a combination of:
• an absolute emissions limit;
• emissions intensity limit; and
• new and additional funding (< 10% of its commitment)
Any financial payments are divided by the COP/MOP between the
Adaptation Fund and a new Technology Funding Mechanism
Core Element 3: Automatic Extension of Annex I/B Commitments
Core Element 4: Economic Hardship
* Core Element 1: Medium and Long Term Goals
Core Element 5: Non-Annex I Parties’ Quantified Sustainable
Development Actions and “No-Lose” Commitments
* A “no lose” commitment (also called “non-binding” or “one way” commitments)
entails no compliance obligation if actual emissions exceed the commitment, but
allows the surplus credits to be sold if actual emissions are lower than the
commitment.
european capacity building initiative
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A Non-Annex I Party may:
1. host Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), including
programmatic CDM, projects
2. quantify the emission reductions achieved by its sustainable
development actions, including policies to reduce
deforestation
3. adopt a sectoral, excluding LULUCF, or national “no lose”
commitment*
Core Element 5.2: Non-Annex I Parties’ Quantified Sustainable
Development Actions
A Non-Annex I Party that prefers to generate tradable units could
implement its sustainable development actions as programmatic
CDM projects.
* The entitlement is to (i) fast tracking of funding requests and (ii) for these to be
on the basis of simplified procedures (e.g. simplified ways of meeting the
incremental cost conditions for policies and measures that support a Non-Annex I
Party’s quantified sustainable development actions).
european capacity building initiative
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Quantified sustainable development actions can NOT generate
tradable credits. But Parties … will be entitled to use
simplified procedures for access to funding from the
Adaptation Fund and Technology Funding Mechanism*.
Core Element 5.3: Non-Annex I Parties’ “No-Lose” Commitments
VERs are subject to the 2 per cent levy for adaptation assistance.
A “no lose” commitment must be maintained until the Party
becomes an Annex I/B Party.
european capacity building initiative
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A Non-Annex I Party that adopts a sectoral or national “no
lose” commitment can earn voluntary emission reduction units
(VERs) for the net emission achieved. VERs (equivalent to
CERs for Annex I/B compliance purposes) can be banked or
traded.
A proposed commitment is subject to independent review by
the CDM Executive Board to ensure that it is more stringent
than the emissions that would otherwise occur and assess the
calculation of net emission reduction achieved.
Core Element 6: Limits on Transfers of CERs and VERs by NonAnnex I Parties
A Non-Annex I Party that does not adopt a national emissions
limitation commitment when it has reached its transfer limit is
deemed to have withdrawn from the Protocol.
european capacity building initiative
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“Graduation Trigger” for each developing country’s that
takes the form of a limit on cumulative transfers of CERs
and VERs by each Non-Annex I Party. A Non-Annex I
Party is expected to become an Annex I/B Party and adopt
a national emissions limitation commitment when its
cumulative transfers of CERs and VERs reach its share of
the global transfer limit.
Core Element 7 to 9: The Kyoto Mechanisms
Core Element 7: Clean Development Mechanism
Joint Implementation will continue to function unchanged
except that ERUs transferred from the national registry of the
host Party will be subject to a share of proceeds equal to 2
per cent to assist technology development.
Core Element 9: Emissions Trading
Emissions trading will continue to function unchanged except
that: AAUs and RMUs transferred from the national registry
into which they were issued will be subject to a share of
proceeds equal to 2 per cent to assist technology
development.
Core Element 10: Compliance
european capacity building initiative
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Core Element 8: Joint Implementation
Core Element 11: Enhanced Implementation of Adaptation
Despite implementation of measures to adapt to climate change,
extreme weather events will continue to inflict serious damage.
Parties assess mechanisms to manage the risk of damage and to
provide compensation for damages incurred as a result of extreme
weather events and to adopt an appropriate legal instrument to
give effect to such mechanism(s) no later than the end of 2010.*
* Emergency response to extreme weather events – medical assistance, food, water, shelter,
etc. – is better addressed by institutions such as the International Red Cross/Red Crescent
and hence is excluded from this revised Protocol.
european capacity building initiative
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The Adaptation Fund is funded by the 2 per cent share of the
proceeds on CERs and is supplemented by a similar levy on
VERs and a share of the funding from Annex I/B Parties
financial commitments as decided by the COP/MOP
Core Elements 12–13: Technology
Core Element 12: Technology Transfer
Core Element 13: Technology Research and Development
A Technology Funding Mechanism is established
Funds from the Technology Funding Mechanism can be used
• to participate in international efforts to develop technologies to
reduce emissions of greenhouse gases or adapt to climate change,
or
• to enhance diffusion of relevant technologies by buying down
their cost.
european capacity building initiative
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Any Party that believes another Party is restricting the transfer
of a technology may present its case to the Facilitative Branch
of the Compliance Committee.
Core Element 14 –: Misc.
Core Element 15: Trade Restrictions
Core Element 16: Review
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Core Element 14: Memoranda of Understanding Extending
the Scope of the Agreement