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Transcript
Climate-smart Agriculture
in relation to REDD+
Peter Holmgren
FAO
8 June 2011
Two Goals of Our Time
1. Achieving Food Security
–
–
–
1 billion hungry
Food production to increase 70% by 2050
Adaptation to Climate Change critical
2. Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change
–
–
–
”2 degree goal” requires major emission cuts
Agriculture and Land use = 30% of emissions..
..and needs to be part of the solution
A Sustainable Development landscape
GLOBAL
OBJECTIVES
UNFCCC
“Carbon”
CBD
“Species”
Climate
Biodiversity
WSFS
“Calories” +Human rights,
Health, Trade,
Education, .....
National ->
International
National ->
Local
LOCAL
REALITIES
Food Security
Climate–smart Agriculture
Climate-smart Agriculture
Agriculture* that sustainably:
• increases productivity
• increases resilience (adaptation)
• reduces/removes GHGs
AND
• enhances achievement of national food
security and development goals
ADRESSES MULTIPLE OBJECTIVES!
*) FAO includes agriculture, forestry and
fisheries sectors in the “agriculture” concept
www Practices and Policies
• Increased productivity and resilience and less
emissions is the “win-win-win”
• Often but not always possible
• Some knowledge gaps
• Multiple-objective policies needed
– Success should not be determined through singleobjective measures (e.g. GHG emissions)
– Single-objective actions should generally be avoided
– Local actions should not be micro-managed through
detailed accounting (proxy-based policies more efficient)
Action examples
Increase productivity (yields per area)
under environmental and sustainability
constraints
Can help Food
Security
and
Resilience
Can help meet CC
Mitigation
Yes
(yes)
Reduce expansion of agriculture and
sustainable forest management
Yes
Effective water use
Yes
(yes)
Reduce losses in / more efficient
agricultural practises
Yes
Yes
Reduce losses in food processing and
handling
Yes
Yes
Improve agricultural markets and
incentives
Yes
Yes
(yes)
Yes
Carbon sequestration in vegetation and
soil
Combining Finance
•
What difference can climate finance make?
1600
0
Annual
Annual EU
Cancún
REDD+
agriculture
CAP
Green Fund readiness
investment
finance
Is Agriculture relevant to REDD+?
100 years in the Nordic countries
What are we talking about?
• Deforestation
– Conversion of forests to other land uses, in
most cases agriculture
• Forest Degradation
– Result of pressure on forest resources, very
often caused by agriculture-related activities
(fire, fuel, fodder, grazing, shifting cultivation)
• Enhancing Forest Carbon Stock
– Reversing forest degradation, and also
potentially afforesting previous agriculture land
The right REDD+ focus?
No. ‘It’s the agriculture, stu...’
Relative importance of REDD+
International
National
REDD+ Mitigation
Actions and Payments
Other land use actions that generate
income and food security
Local
Concluding remarks
• Climate-smart agriculture is an approach
that embraces multiple objectives in the
agriculture sectors
• Emissions addressed in REDD+ very often
originate in agriculture-related
activities
• Success in REDD+ depends on measures
taken in agriculture sectors