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Transcript
HNTR 20 Human Ecology
Fall 2005
environment:
• sum total of our surroundings including both biotic and abiotic factors
environmental science:
•the study of the environment including both natural and anthropogenic effects
-feminization of male alligators in Lake Apopka, FL
-plant succession after forest fires
-changes in the geographic distribution of migrating songbirds
-concentrations of air particulate
environmental health science:
•the study of the impact of the environment upon human health
ecology:
• the relationship between all organisms and their biological and physical
environments
• the study of ecosystems (dynamic interactions between plants, animals, microorganisms and the physical world)
human ecology:
• relationship between humans and their biological, physical, and social
environments
Global pressures affecting human ecology
Population:
the current population is about 6.5 billion compared
to less than 3 billion in 1950
Inequitable distribution of wealth:
GDP-per capita
Luxembourg
$58,900
United States
$40,100
Guernsey
$40,000
Norway
$40,000
Russia
$9,800
Sierra Leone
$600
Malawi
$600
East Timor
$400
2003/4 estimates
Source: CIA: World Factbook http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html
Inequitable distribution of wealth:
GDP-per capita
Luxembourg
$58,900
United States
$40,100
Guernsey
$40,000
Norway
$40,000
Russia
$9,800
Sierra Leone
$600
Malawi
$600
East Timor
$400
2003/4 estimates
Source: Jane Z’s I hate the rich BLOG
Inequitable distribution of wealth:
Within the US:
In 1979, the top 5% had incomes 11-times the bottom 20%
In 2002, the top 5% had incomes 19-times the bottom 20%
Jared Bernstein-co-director Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC
former deputy chief economist, US Dept. of Labor 1995-1996
Ecosystems are jeopardized:
“Pilot analysis of global ecosystems” 2000
World Resources Institute/Institute for Food Policy Research
“Earth’s ecosystems and its peoples are bound together
in a grand and complex symbiosis….. Ecosystems are
the productive engines of the planet, providing us with
everything from the water we drink to the food we eat
and the fiber we use for clothing, paper or lumber. Yet,
nearly every measure we use to assess the health of
ecosystems tells us we are drawing on them more than
ever and degrading them, in some cases at an
accelerating pace.”
Ecosystems are jeopardized: WHY?
• destruction of forests, grasslands, coastlines
• loss of biodiversity-development, overfishing etc.
• local air pollution
• global distribution of air pollutants
• water pollution
• waste storage and soil contamination
• diversion of fresh water
• bioaccumulation
• global climate change due to energy use
Global climate change
The US EPA observes:
“Global mean surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century.”
“The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. “
“Of these, 1998 was the warmest year on record.”
“The snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased.”
“Globally, sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century.”
“Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent.”
“The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased throughout much of the United States.”
http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/climate.html
Tamara S. Ledley, Eric T. Sundquist, Stephen E. Schwartz, Dorothy K. Hall, Jack D. Fellows, and Timothy L. Killeen .(1999)
Climate change and Greenhouse gases Eos 80: 453
Greatest Oil Reserves by Country, 2005
Rank
Country
Proved reserves
(billion barrels)
1.
Saudi Arabia
261.9
2.
Canada
178.8
3.
Iran
125.8
4.
Iraq
115.0
5.
Kuwait
101.5
6.
United Arab Emirates
97.8
7.
Venezuela
77.2
8.
Russia
60.0
9.
Libya
39.0
10.
Nigeria
35.3
1
NOTES: Proved reserves are estimated with reasonable certainty to be recoverable with present technology and prices.
Source: Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 102, No. 47 (Dec. 10, 2004).
From: U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/international/petroleu.html
.
Department of Energy; retrieved August 30, 2005
http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/global/images/figure1.gif
http://www.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2004/fcvt_fotw336.shtml
The Open University, UK
http://www.open.ac.uk/T206/illustrations/figure1_11.htm
Summary-Global factors affecting human ecology
1. population
2. disparities in wealth
3. ecosystems in jeopardy
4. global climate change
IMPORTANT—these factors are interdependent
poverty and damage to ecosystems
NASA photo: Aerial view of the Haiti-Dominican Republic border
New York Times, August 27, 2005
Miami-Dade County Florida after Katrina
1) Environmental science: Was Katrina a natural
event?
2) Environmental health: why has a public
health emergency been declared along
the gulf coast?
2) The Human Ecology of Katrina: What factors
are threatening survival of people in the gulf
coast right now?
New York Times April 26, 2003
New York Times April 26, 2003