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Transcript
CHAPTER 10
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Structure and Function
• Functions of the cardiovascular system
– Transports nutrients and oxygen to the
body
– Transports waste products from the cells to
the kidneys for excretion
– Distributes hormones and antibodies
throughout the body
– Helps control body temperature and
maintain electrolyte balance
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Heart
•
•
•
•
Two-sided, double pump
Weighs less than a pound
Little bigger than a fist
Located between the lungs in the
thoracic cavity
• Positioned partially to the left of the
sternum
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Figure 10-2A Structures of
the Heart
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Tissue Layers of the Heart
• Endocardium
– Smooth layer of cells lining the inside of the heart
and forming the valves
• Myocardium
– The thickest layer, consisting of muscle tissue
• Pericardium
– Double membrane that covers the outside of the
heart, providing lubrication between the heart and
surrounding structures to prevent tissue damage
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Blood Vessels
• Arteries
– Carry blood away from the heart
• Veins
– Carry blood back to the heart
• Capillaries
– Microscopic vessels that carry blood
between the arterial and venous vessels
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Figure 10-4 Blood Vessels
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Assessment Techniques
•
•
•
•
Measuring pulse and blood pressure
Listening to heart sounds
Determining cardiac output
Measuring muscle activity with
electrocardiography
• Inserting a cardiac catheter
• Using echocardiography
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Disorders of the
Cardiovascular System
• Aneurysm
– An area of a blood vessel that bulges because of a
weakness in the wall
• Atherosclerosis
– A narrowing of blood vessels caused by deposits
of fatty material containing calcium and
cholesterol
• Cardiac arrhythmia
– A disturbance of the heart’s rhythm caused by a
defect in the heart’s pacemaker cells or by
damage to heart tissue
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Disorders of the Cardiovascular
System (continued)
• Cardiovascular disease
– A general term for the combined effects of
arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, and related
conditions called coronary artery disease
• Congenital heart disease
– A group of disorders that affect about 25,000
newborns each year in the united states
• Congestive heart failure
– The inability of the heart to pump blood
adequately to meet the body’s needs
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Disorders of the Cardiovascular
System (continued)
• Hypertension
– High blood pressure
• Myocardial infarction
– Known as a heart attack
• Phlebitis
– An inflammation of a vein, often with formation of
a clot
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Disorders of the Cardiovascular
System (continued)
• Rheumatic heart disease
– A condition in which the heart muscle and valves
are damaged by a recurrent bacterial infection
that usually begins in the throat
• Varicose veins
– A condition in which veins become enlarged and
ineffective
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.
Issues and Innovations
• Heart replacement
– First artificial heart, Jarvik-7
– AbioCor self-contained artificial heart
– Heart transplants
• Cholesterol controversy
– LDL vs. HDL
– Ways to avoid high cholesterol
Copyright 2003 by Mosby, Inc. All
rights reserved.