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Transcript
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 0
Chapter 13
Mental Health Promotion
and Illness Prevention
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 1
Basic Aims of Primary Prevention Activities
• To help people avoid stressors or cope with them more
adaptively
• To change the resources, policies, or agents of the
environment so that they no longer cause stress but
rather enhance people’s functioning
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 2
Levels of Prevention
• Primary prevention—Lowering the incidence of a
mental disorder or reducing the rate at which new
cases of a disorder develop
• Secondary prevention—Decreasing the prevalence
of a mental disorder by reducing the number of existing
cases through early case finding, screening, and
prompt effective treatment
• Tertiary prevention—Reducing the severity of a
mental disorder and its associated disability through
rehabilitative activities
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 3
Nursing Prevention Model
1. Identify a stressor that appears to result in a
maladaptive coping response in a significant
proportion of the population. Develop procedures for
reliably identifying people who are at risk for the
stressor and maladaptive response.
2. By epidemiological and laboratory methods, study the
consequences of that stressor and develop
hypotheses related to how its negative consequences
might be reduced or eliminated.
3. Launch and evaluate an experimental preventive
intervention program based on these hypotheses.
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 4
Risk Factors and Protective Factors
• Risk factors—Predisposing characteristics that, if
present for a person, make it more likely that he or she
will develop a disorder
• Protective factors—Coping resources and coping
mechanisms that can improve a person’s response to
stress, resulting in adaptive behavior
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 5
Target Populations
• Universal—Targeted to the general population group
without consideration of risk factors
• Selective—Targeted to individuals or groups with a
significantly higher risk of developing a particular
disorder
• Indicated—Targeted to high-risk individuals identified
as having symptoms foreshadowing a specific mental
disorder or biological markers indicating predisposition
for the disorder
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 6
Health Education Related to Competence
Building or Increasing Self-Efficacy
• Increasing awareness of issues and events related to
health and illness; awareness of normal developmental
tasks and potential problems is fundamental
• Increasing understanding of potential stressors,
possible outcomes (both adaptive and maladaptive),
and alternative coping responses
• Increasing knowledge of where and how to acquire the
needed resources
• Increasing the actual abilities of the individual or group,
including problem solving, communication skills,
tolerance of stress and frustration, motivation, hope,
anger management, and self-esteem
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 7
Environmental Change
• Economic, work, housing, or family situations
• Political level
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 8
Social Support
• Community assessment
• Linking to mental health services
• Strengthening natural caregiving networks
• Expanding social support networks
• Using self-help groups
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 9
Stigma Reduction
• Public advocacy
• Public education
• Supporting searches for causes and effective
treatments for mental disorders
Copyright © 2005 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Slide 10