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Transcript
ECOLOGY
organism
population
Community
Ecosystems
abiotic
the study of the interactions
of living things and nonliving things with one
another and their environment
A single living thing. All
animals and plants are
organisms.
Organisms of the same
species living together in the
same geographical area at
the same time
Several different populations
that live together in the same
habitat or environment.
All the living (biotic) and
non-living (abiotic) things
that interact in an
environment (area).
the non-living things in an
ecosystem (sunlight, water,
rocks, climate, wind and
rain)
biotic
niche
the living things in an
ecosystem (plants, animals,
insects)
An organism’s particular
role or job in an ecosystem,
or how it makes its living
(what it eats, when it eats,
when it sleeps, the part of the
tree it lives in, etc.)
predator
organism that does the
hunting and killing and eats
all or part of another
organism
prey
organism that is hunted by a
predator and killed for food
Owl
Mouse
The sun (light energy), water,
minerals and carbon dioxide
Photosynthesis
are all absorbed by the plant.
The cycle of
The plant then uses them to
plants and how
make glucose/sugar, which is
they make
the energy/food for the plant.
energy!
Oxygen is also produced and
released into the air!
producer
consumer*
living thing that can make its
own food through
photosynthesis. (Humans can
never be producers.)
living thing that gets its
energy by eating other living
things
consumer* that only eats
herbivore
cows, horses,
plants (Organism that obtains
mice, elephants energy ONLY from producers)
carnivore
consumer* that only eats
animals
omnivore
consumer* that eats both
plants and animals
scavenger
Both a carnivorous and
herbivorous behavior in
which the scavenger feeds on
dead and decaying organic*
matter present in its habitat.
Something that is living or
was once living.
Inorganic-minerals and some
rocks. (something that has
never lived)
Organisms (fungus, mold,
bacteria and mushrooms) that
return nutrients to the soil and
break down dead
organisms. “Nature’s
recyclers”
organic*
decomposer
Turkey
Vulture
PLEASE READ: The Energy Pyramid, simple Food Chains and Food Webs all show transfer of energy
through arrows.
energy
transfer
Example:
Our body
gives off
heat. We
gain a
percentage
of energy
by eating
other
organisms.
The amount of
energy that moves
or is transferred
from one feeding
level to another as a
result of feeding
patterns of a series
of organisms. This
energy decreases as
it moves up the
pyramid.
food
chain
A path of energy
from one living
thing to another.
Energy
Pyramid
See below for
example of
how energy is
lost at each
level.
Decomposers like bacteria are necessary for all
food chains. **Notice the producer (plant) consumer (herbivore, omnivore, and
carnivore) relationship.
food web
Drawing that shows
how food chains
connect together and
their feeding
relationshipsidentify a food
chain within a food
web.
Analyze the interactions of living organisms with their ecosystems.
limiting
factor
Anything that restricts the
number of individuals living
in a population.
A resource that is so scarce
that it limits the size of a
population.
carrying
capacity
The
maximum
amount of
organisms
that can live
in an area.
rabbits,
but if there is only enough
food for ten rabbits, the population will not grow
any larger. In this example, food is the limiting
factor.
the largest population an
environment can support
-Describe and analyze how major
changes in the limiting factors
affect the carrying capacity of
organisms in an ecosystem.
See # 16 on CRT
example Test.
The environment where an
organism lives that can be
habitat
affected by the limiting
factors
Adaptation In order for animals to
Skunks-chemical
survive, they need to be able
Lizard-camouflage
Prairie dog-runs
to adapt.
away
For example, 10 rabbits may live in a habitat that
has enough water, cover and space to support 20
(Moving in large groups is a
behavioral adaptation; it helps
protect the members of the
group from predators.
The thick fur coat of an arctic
fox is a structural adaptation.
It helps protect it against the
cold weather.
These limiting factors
cause individuals to
die off or leave
causing the
population to
decrease.
symbiosis
relationship between
living things in which at
least one benefits
Parasite
(Example: tick
or flea harms
the dog)
Symbiotic relationship
in which an organism
(parasite) benefits
while the other (host) is
harmed.
Host
(Example: Dog
gets harmed)
living thing that a
parasite lives on or in
that gets harmed
environment
The environment
includes not only
physical factors* such as
climate or terrain, but
also living factors such
as predators, prey, and
other members of a
population.
Interpret an analyze data
to predict survival rate
in organisms due to
changing
environmental factors:
survival rate
Environmental
(Physical*)
factors
 Droughts
 Floods
 Temperature
changes
 Wildfires
 Pollution
Droughts
Severe droughts affect regions in a number of ways. Vegetation that requires
frequent water cannot survive long under these conditions. Shrinking water sources
increase competition between animals and threaten populations. Droughts occurring
in areas with dense vegetation also increase the risk of wildfires.
Floods
Though in some areas like river flood-plains where frequent flooding is a natural
and important occurrence, excessive flooding can cause lasting damage. Like
droughts, extreme flooding can impact an ecosystem by eroding the surrounding
soil and uprooting the plants and trees that hold the soil in place. Floods can also
leave behind toxins and pollutants picked up along the way.

Climate Change
The last decade has seen obvious signs of climate change. As the earth's
temperature continues to warm, the effects will become more apparent and
damaging. Ice caps are melting, causing ocean levels to rise and placing more water
into Earth's natural water cycle. Temperature change also increases the chances of
stronger storms in some areas while causing longer, more extreme droughts in
others. Stronger and more frequent occurrences of these natural disasters leave little
time for an ecosystem to bounce back from serious damage.

Wildfires
Fires play an important role in wildlife management when they are planned to
prevent larger wildfires during the dry season. When the wildfires are unplanned, it
causes events that can sweep across an area and destroy everything in its path. By
destroying the vegetation, erosion occurs leaving nothing to prevent catastrophic
flooding during the rainy season. The loss of habitat means the loss of homes for
both humans and wildlife.
Evaluate Data Related To Problems Associated With
Population Growth And The Possible Solution
1. The ground cover (grass) would be depleted causing soil
erosion.
2. The native plants would be replaced by less favorable
plants.
3. The food web in the area would be disrupted.
4. The land would not hold the rain as well and you would get
major run off.
5. Dust storms.
6. Droughts might occur due to the overheating of the land
due to no ground cover.
7. Animals would starve and die.
8. The land may be permanently changed
Species that do not
Most exotic species introduced into
Non-native
naturally occur in an North America do not become
(exotic) species
ecosystem.
invasive. Many of the species our
NO NATURAL
civilization relies upon such as wheat,
PREDATORS.
barley and rice are exotic but not
invasive.
plants or animals that Invasive species damage our
invasive species
Sometimes used by aggressively establish ecosystem by competing for resources
humans to manage themselves in an
native species need to survive,
other organisms.
ecosystem at the
sometimes choking out natives
*See # 21 on CRT expense of its native entirely. (If they overgraze, then
example Test.
species and natural
erosion is one side effect, followed by
functions
floods).
Overgrazing
ENERGY RESOURCES:
Resource that can be
Renewable
replaced at the same
resources
rate it is used.
Non- Renewable
resources
Cannot be replaced in
our lifetime or takes
thousands or millions
of years. (fossil fuels)
Mining
Removing fossils
fuels from the Earth’s
crust. (coal)