Download CARDIAC PACEMAKERS

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Quantium Medical Cardiac Output wikipedia, lookup

Myocardial infarction wikipedia, lookup

Cardiac surgery wikipedia, lookup

Lutembacher's syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Management of acute coronary syndrome wikipedia, lookup

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia wikipedia, lookup

Electrocardiography wikipedia, lookup

Heart failure wikipedia, lookup

Heart arrhythmia wikipedia, lookup

Atrial fibrillation wikipedia, lookup

Ventricular fibrillation wikipedia, lookup

Mitral insufficiency wikipedia, lookup

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy wikipedia, lookup

Cardiac contractility modulation wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Cardiac Assist Devices
Wayne E. Ellis, Ph.D., CRNA
Types
Pacemakers
AICDs
VADs
2
History




First pacemaker implanted in 1958
First ICD implanted in 1980
Greater than 500,000 patients in the US
population have pacemakers
115,000 implanted each year
3
Pacemakers Today




Single or dual chamber
Multiple programmable features
Adaptive rate pacing
Programmable lead configuration
4
Internal Cardiac Defibrillators
(ICD)




Transvenous leads
Multiprogrammable
Incorporate all capabilities of
contemporary pacemakers
Storage capacity
5
Temporary Pacing Indications

Routes = Transvenous, transcutaneous,
esophageal

Unstable bradydysrhythmias
Atrioventricular heart block
Unstable tachydysrhythmias



*Endpoint reached after resolution of the
problem or permanent pacemaker implantation
6
Permanent Pacing Indications






Chronic AVHB
Chronic Bifascicular and Trifascicular Block
AVHB after Acute MI
Sinus Node Dysfunction
Hypersensitive Carotid Sinus and Neurally
Mediated Syndromes
Miscellaneous Pacing Indications
7
Chronic AVHB
Especially if symptomatic
Pacemaker most commonly indicated for:
 Type 2 2º



Block occurs within or below the Bundle of His
3º Heart Block

No communication between atria and ventricles
8
Chronic Bifascicular and
Trifascicular Block



Differentiation between uni, bi, and
trifascicular block
Syncope common in patients with
bifascicular block
Intermittent 3º heart block common
9
AVHB after Acute MI



Incidence of high grade AVHB higher
Indications for pacemaker related to
intraventricular conduction defects rather
than symptoms
Prognosis related to extent of heart
damage
10
Sinus Node Dysfunction





Sinus bradycardia, sinus pause or arrest, or
sinoatrial block, chronotropic incompetence
Often associated with paroxysmal SVTs
(bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome)
May result from drug therapy
Symptomatic?
Often the primary indication for a pacemaker
11
Hypersensitive Carotid Sinus
Syndrome
• Syncope or presyncope due to an
exaggerated response to carotid sinus
stimulation
• Defined as asystole greater than 3 sec due
to sinus arrest or AVHB, an abrupt
reduction of BP, or both
12
Neurally Mediated Syncope



10-40% of patients with syncope
Triggering of a neural reflex
Use of pacemakers is controversial since
often bradycardia occurs after
hypotension
13
Miscellaneous





Hypertrophic Obstructive
Cardiomyopathy
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Cardiac transplantation
Termination and prevention of
tachydysrhythmias
Pacing in children and adolescents
14
Indications for ICDs




Cardiac arrest due to VT/VF not due to a
transient or reversible cause
Spontaneous sustained VT
Syncope with hemodynamically significant
sustained VT or VF
NSVT with CAD, previous MI, LV dysfunction
and inducible VF or VT not suppressed by a
class 1 antidysrhythmic
15
Device Selection



Temporary pacing (invasive vs.
noninvasive)
Permanent pacemaker
ICD
16
Pacemaker Characteristics
• Adaptive-rate pacemakers
•Single-pass lead Systems
• Programmable lead configuration
• Automatic Mode-Switching
• Unipolar vs. Bipolar electrode
configuration
17
ICD selection




Antibradycardia pacing
Antitachycardia pacing
Synchronized or nonsynchronized shocks
for dysrhythmias
Many of the other options incorporated
into pacemakers
18
Approaches to Insertion
a. IV approach (endocardial lead)
b. Subcostal approach (epicardial or
myocardial lead)
c. Noninvasive transcutaneous pacing
Alternative to emergency transvenous pacing
19
Mechanics
 Provide the rhythm heart cannot produce
 Either temporary or permanent
 Consists of external or internal power
source and a lead to carry the current to
the heart muscle
 Batteries provide the power source
 Pacing lead is a coiled wire spring encased in
silicone to insulate it from body fluids
20
Unipolar Pacemaker
Lead has only one electrode that contacts
the heart at its tip (+) pole
The power source is the (-) pole
Patient serves as the grounding source
Patient’s body fluids provide the return
pathway for the electrical signal
Electromagnetic interference occurs more
often in unipolar leads
21
Unipolar Pacemaker
22
Bipolar Pacemaker
If bipolar, there are two wires to the heart or
one wire with two electrodes at its tip
Provides a built-in ground lead
Circuit is completed within the heart
Provides more contact with the
endocardium; needs lower current to
pace
Less chance for cautery interference
23
Bipolar Pacemaker
24
Indications
1. Sick sinus syndrome (Tachy-brady
syndrome)
2. Symptomatic bradycardia
3. Atrial fibrillation
4. Hypersensitive carotid sinus syndrome
5.
Second-degree heart block/Mobitz II
25
Indications
6. Complete heart block
7. Sinus arrest/block
8. Tachyarrhythmias
Supraventricular, ventricular
To overdrive the arrhythmia
26
Atrial Fibrillation
* A fibrillating atrium cannot be paced
* Place a VVI
* Patient has no atrial kick
27
Types
1. Asynchronous/Fixed Rate
2. Synchronous/Demand
3. Single/Dual Chamber
Sequential (A & V)
4. Programmable/nonprogrammable
28
Asynchronous/Fixed Rate
 Does not synchronize with intrinsic HR
 Used safely in pts with no intrinsic
ventricular activity
If pt has vent. activity, it may compete
with pt’s own conduction system
VT may result (R-on-T phenomenon)
EX: VOO, AOO, DOO
29
Synchronous/Demand
Contains two circuits
* One forms impulses
* One acts as a sensor
When activated by an R wave, sensing circuit
either triggers or inhibits the pacing
circuit
Called “Triggered” or “Inhibited” pacers
Most frequently used pacer
Eliminates competition;
Energy sparing
30
Examples of Demand Pacemakers
DDI
VVI/VVT
AAI/AAT
Disadvantage: Pacemaker may be fooled by
interference and may not fire
31
Dual Chamber: A-V
Sequential
Facilitates a normal sequence between
atrial and ventricular contraction
Provides atrial kick + ventricular pacing
Atrial contraction assures more complete
ventricular filling than the ventricular
demand pacing unit
Increase CO 25-35% over ventricular pacing
alone
32
A-V Sequential
Disadvantage: More difficult to place
More expensive
Contraindication: Atrial fibrillation, SVT
Developed due to inadequacy of “pure atrial
pacing”
33
Single Chamber
Atrial
Ventricular
34
“Pure Atrial Pacing”
Used when SA node is diseased or
damaged but AV conduction system
remains intact
Provides atrial kick
Atrial kick can add 15-30% to CO over a
ventricular pacemaker
Electrode in atrium: stimulus produces a
P wave
35
Problems with Atrial Pacing
Electrode difficult to secure in atrium
Tends to float
Inability to achieve consistent atrial
“demand” function
36
Ventricular Pacemakers
If electrode is placed in right ventricle,
stimulus produces a left BBB pattern
If electrode is placed in left ventricle,
stimulus produces a right BBB pattern
37
Programmability
Capacity to noninvasively alter one of several
aspects of the function of a pacer
Desirable since pacer requirements for a person
change over time
Most common programmed areas
Rate
Output
AV delay in dual chamber pacers
R wave sensitivity
Advantage: can overcome interference
caused by electrocautery
38
3-Letter or 5-Letter Code
 Devised to simplify the naming of
pacemaker generators
39
First letter
Indicates the chamber being paced
A:
V:
D:
O:
Atrium
Ventricle
Dual (Both A and V)
None
40
Second Letter
Indicates the chamber being sensed
A:
V:
D:
O:
Atrium
Ventricle
Dual (Both A and V)
Asynchronous or does not apply
41
Third Letter
Indicates the generator’s response to a
sensed signal/R wave
I:
T:
D:
O:
Inhibited
Triggered
Dual (T & I)
Asynchronous/ does not apply
42
Fourth Letter
Indicates programming information
O:
P:
M:
C:
R:
No programming
Programming only for output and/or rate
Multiprogrammable
Communicating
Rate modulation
43
Fifth Letter
This letter indicates tachyarrhythmia
functions
B:
N:
S:
E:
O:
Bursts
Normal rate competition
Scanning
External
None
44
Table of Pacer Codes
45
Types of Pulse Generators
46
Examples
AOO
A:
O:
O:
VOO
V:
O:
O:
Atrium is paced
No chamber is sensed
Asynchronous/does not apply
Ventricle is paced
No chamber is sensed
Asynchronous/does not apply
47
Examples
VVI
V: Ventricle is the paced chamber
V: Ventricle is the sensed chamber
I: Inhibited response to a sensed
signal
Thus, a synchronous generator that paces
and senses in the ventricle
Inhibited if a sinus or escape beat occurs
Called a “demand” pacer
48
Examples
DVI
D: Both atrium and ventricle are
paced
V: Ventricle is sensed
I: Response is inhibited to a sensed
ventricular signal
For A-V sequential pacing in which atria and
ventricles are paced. If a ventricular
signal, generator won’t fire
Overridden by intrinsic HR if faster
49
Examples
DDD
Greatest flexibility in programming
Best approximates normal cardiac response to exercise
DOO
Most apparent potential for serious ventricular
arrhythmias
VAT
Ventricular paced, atrial sensed
Should have an atrial refractory period programmed in
to prevent risk of arrhythmias induced by PACs
from ectopic or retrograde conduction
AV interval is usually 150-250 milliseconds
50
Other Information
Demand pacer can be momentarily converted to
asynchronous mode by placing magnet externally
over pulse generator in some pacers
Dual chamber pacers preferable for almost all
patients except those with chronic atrial
fibrillation (need a working conduction system)
Asynchronous pacer modes not generally used
outside the OR
OR has multiple potential sources of electrical interference
which may prevent normal function of demand pacers
51
Other Information
VVI: Standard ventricular demand
pacemaker
DVI: AV pacemaker with two pacing
electrodes
Demand pacer may be overridden by
intrinsic HR if more rapid
Demand pacer can be momentarily
converted to asynchronous mode by
placing magnet externally over pulse
generator
52
Sensing
Ability of device to detect intrinsic cardiac
activity
Undersensing: failure to sense
Oversensing: too sensitive to activity
53
Undersensing: Failure to sense
Pacer fails to detect an intrinsic rhythm
Paces unnecessarily
Patient may feel “extra beats”
If an unneeded pacer spike falls in the latter
portion of T wave, dangerous
tachyarrhythmias or V fib may occur (R
on T)
TX: Increase sensitivity of pacer
54
Oversensing
Pacer interprets noncardiac electrical
signals as originating in the heart
Detects extraneous signals such as those
produced by electrical equipment or the
activity of skeletal muscles (tensing,
flexing of chest muscles, SUX)
Inhibits itself from pacing as it would a true
heart beat
55
Oversensing
On ECG: pauses longer than the normal
pacing interval are present
Often, electrical artifact is seen
Deprived of pacing, the patient suffers 
CO, feels dizzy/light-headed
Most often due to sensitivity being
programmed too high
TX: Reduce sensitivity
56
Capture
Depolarization of atria and/or ventricles in
response to a pacing stimulus
57
Noncapture/Failure to Capture
Pacer’s electrical stimulus (pacing) fails to
depolarize (capture) the heart
There is no “failure to pace”
Pacing is simply unsuccessful at stimulating
a contraction
ECG shows pacer spikes but no cardiac
response
 CO occurs
TX:  threshold/output strength or duration
58
Pacer Failure
A. Early
electrode displacement/breakage
B. Failure > 6 months
Premature battery depletion
Faulty pulse generator
59
Pacer Malfunctions per ECG
 Failure to capture
 Failure to sense
 Runaway pacemaker
60
Pacer Malfunction SX
1. Vertigo/Syncope
*Worsens with exercise
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Unusual fatigue
Low B/P/  peripheral pulses
Cyanosis
Jugular vein distention
Oliguria
Dyspnea/Orthopnea
Altered mental status
61
EKG Evaluation
Capture: Should be 1:1
(spike:EKG complex/pulse)
*Not helpful if patient’s HR is >
pacer rate if synchronous type
62
EKG Evaluation
Proper function of demand pacer
Confirmed by seeing captured beats on EKG
when pacer is converted to asynchronous
mode
Place external converter magnet over generator
Do not use magnet unless recommended
63
CAPTURE
Output: amt of current (mAmps) needed to
get an impulse
Sensitivity: (millivolts); the lower the
setting, the more sensitive
64
Anesthesia for Insertion
MAC
To provide comfort
To control dysrhythmias
To check for proper function/capture
Have external pacer/Isuprel/Atropine
ready
Continuous ECG and peripheral pulse
Pulse ox with plethysmography to see
perfusion of each complex
(EKG may become unreadable)
65
Pacemaker Insertion
66
Interference
Things which may modify pacer function:
Sympathomimetic amines may increase
myocardial irritability
Quinidine/Procainamide toxicity may cause
failure of cardiac capture
 K+, advanced ht disease, or fibrosis around
electrode may cause failure of cardiac
capture
67
Anesthesia for Pt with
Pacemaker
a. Continuous ECG and peripheral pulse
b. Pulse ox with plethysmography to
see perfusion of each complex
(EKG may become unreadable)
c. Defibrillator/crash cart available
d. External pacer available
e. External converter magnet available
68
Anesthesia for Pt with Pacemaker
If using Succinylcholine, consider defasciculating dose
of MR
Fasciculations may inhibit firing due to the skeletal
muscle contractions picked up by generator as
intrinsic R waves
Place ground pad far from generator but close to
cautery tip
Cover pad well with conductive gel
Minimizes detection of cautery current by pulse
generator
If patient has a transvenous pacemaker, increased risk
of V. fib from microshock levels of electrical
current
69
Anesthesia for Pt with Pacemaker
Cautery may interfere with pacer:
May inhibit triggering (pacer may sense
electrical activity and not fire)
May inadvertently reprogram
May induce arrhythmias secondary to current
May cause fixed-rate pacing
70
Automatic
Implantable
Cardiac
Defibrillators
71
AICD
72
Parts of AICD
 Pulse generator with batteries
and capacitors
 Electrode or lead system
Surgically placed in or on
pericardium/myocardium
 Monitors HR and rhythm
Delivers shock if VT or Vfib
73
Placement of AICD
Pulse Generator
74
AICD Indications
 Risk for sudden cardiac death
caused by tachyarrhythmias (VT, Vfib)
 Reduces death from 40% to 2% per year
75
Defibrillator Codes
First letter: Shock Chamber
A: atrium
V: ventricle
D: dual
O: none
76
Defibrillator Codes
Second letter: Antitachycardia Chamber
A: atrium
V: ventricle
D: dual
O: none
Third letter: Tachycardia Detection
E: EKG
H: Hemodynamics
77
Defibrillator Codes
Fourth letter: Antibradycardia Pacing
Chamber
A: atrium
V: ventricle
D: dual
O: none
78
Settings
Gives a shock at 0.1-30 joules
Usually 25 joules
Takes 5-20 seconds to sense VT/VF
Takes 5-15 seconds more to charge
2.5-10 second delay before next shock is
administered
Total of 5 shocks, then pauses
If patient is touched, may feel a buzz or tingle
If CPR is needed, wear rubber gloves for
insulation
79
Tiered Therapy
Ability of an implanted cardioverter
defibrillator to deliver different types of
therapies in an attempt to terminate
ventricular tachyarrhythmias
EX of therapies:
Anticardiac pacing
Cardioversion
Defibrillation
Antibradycardia pacing
80
Anesthesia
MAC vs General
Usually general due to induction of VT/VF so
AICD can be checked for performance
Lead is placed in heart
Generator is placed in hip area or in upper
chest
81
VADs
Ventricular assist devices
Implantable pumps used for circulatory
support in pts with CHF
Blood fills device through a cannulation site
in V or A
Diaphragm pumps blood into aorta or PA
Set at predetermined rate (fixed) or
automatic (rate changes in response to
venous return)
82
Electromagnetic Interference
on Pacers and AICDs
Electrocautery
May inhibit or trigger output
May revert it to asynchronous mode
May reprogram inappropriately
May induce Afib or Vfib
May burn at lead-tissue interface
83
Electromagnetic Interference on
Pacers and AICDs
Defibrillation
May cause permanent damage to pulse
generator
May burn at lead-tissue interface
Radiation Therapy
May damage metal oxide silicon circuitry
May reprogram inappropriately
84
Electromagnetic Interference
on Pacers and AICDs
PET/CT (Contraindicated)
May damage metal oxide silicon circuitry
May reprogram inappropriately
MRI (Contraindicated)
May physically move pulse generator
May reprogram inappropriately
May give inappropriate shock to pt with AICD
PNSs
May cause inappropriate shock or inhibition
Test at highest output setting
85
Deactivating a Pacemaker
Deactivate to prevent inappropriate firing or
inhibition
Can be deactivated by a special
programmer/wand or by a magnet placed
over generator for 30 seconds
Put in asynchronous mode or place external
pacer on patient
86
If Pt has a Pacemaker/AICD
Not all models from a certain company
behave the same way with magnet
placement !
For all generators, call manufacturer
Most reliable method for determining magnet
response ! !
87
Coding Patient
If patient codes, do not wait for AICD
to work
Start CPR & defibrillate immediately
Person giving CPR may feel slight buzz
A 30-joule shock is < 2 j on pt’s skin
External defibrillation will not harm AICD
Change paddle placement if unsuccessful
attempt
Try A-P paddle placement if A-Lat
unsuccessful
88
Pts with
Pacemakers/AICDs/VADs
Obtain information from patient regarding
device
Ask how often patient is shocked/day
High or low K+ may render endothelial cells
more or less refractory to pacing
A properly capturing pacemaker should
also be confirmed by watching the EKG
and palpating the patient’s pulse
89
Anesthetic Considerations
Avoid Succinylcholine
Keep PNS as far from generator as possible
Have backup plan for device failure
Have method other than EKG for assessing
circulation
Have magnet available in OR
90
Electrocautery Use
Place grounding pad as far from generator
as possible
Place grounding pad as near to surgical
field as possible
Use bipolar electrocautery if possible
Have surgeon use short bursts of
electrocautery
(<1 sec, 5-10 seconds apart)
Maintain lowest possible current
91
Electrocautery Use
If cautery causes asystole, place magnet
over control unit & change from
inhibited to fixed mode
Change back afterwards
Be alert for R on T phenomenon
92
Postoperative Considerations
Avoid shivering
Have device checked and reprogrammed if
questions arise about its function
93
Examples of Rhythms
Sensing
Patient’s own beat is sensed by pacemaker so does not fire
94
Examples of Rhythms
Undersensing
Pacemaker doesn’t sense patient’s own beat and
fires (second last beat)
95
Examples of Rhythms
Oversensing
Pacemaker senses heart beat even though it isn’t beating.
Note the long pauses.
96
Examples of Rhythms
Capture
Pacemaker output (spike) is followed by ventricular
polarization (wide QRS).
97
Examples of Rhythms
Noncapture
Pacer stimulus fails to cause myocardial depolarization
Pacer spike is present but no ECG waveform
Oversensing-Fails to fire
UndersensingFails to sense
ECG
Fires but fails to capture
Pacer spikes after theQRS
98
Examples of Rhythms
100 % Atrial Paced Rhythm with 100% Capture
99
Examples of Rhythms
100% Ventricular Paced Rhythm with 100%
Capture
100
Examples of Rhythms
100% Atrial and 100% Ventricular Paced Rhythm
with 100% Capture
101
Examples of Rhythms
50% Ventricular Paced Rhythm with 100% Capture
102
Examples of Rhythms
25% Ventricular Paced Rhythm with 100% Capture
(Note the sensing that occurs. Pacer senses
intrinsic HR and doesn’t fire).
103
Examples of Rhythms
AICD Shock of VT
Converted to NSR
104
Examples of Rhythms
105
Examples of Rhythms
106
Examples of Rhythms
DDD Pacemaker
107
References
Moser SA, Crawford D, Thomas A. AICDs.
CC Nurse. 1993;62-73.
Nagelhaut JJ, Zaglaniczny KL. Nurse
Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Saunders.1997.
Ouellette, S. (2000). Anesthetic considerations in
patients with cardiac assist devices. CNRA,
23(2), 9-20.
Roth, J. (1994). Programmable and dual chamber
pacemakers: An update. Progress in anes
thesiology, 8, chapter 17. WB Saunders.
108