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Lab Biology – Chapter 2
Honors Biology Chapter 3
Organic Chemistry
• All living things are mostly composed of
4 elements: H, O, N, C “honk”
• Compounds are broken down into 2
general categories:
• Inorganic Compounds:
– Do not contain carbon
• Organic compounds
– Contain significant amounts of carbon.
– Often found with common "functional
Carbon: The “Swiss Army Knife” of Chemistry.
• Carbon is essential to life
for several reasons:
– It can form strong stable
(usually non-polar) covalent
– It can form up to 4
chemical bonds
– It can form multiple bonds
Organic Compounds
• Organic Compounds often form Polymers
• Long chains of smaller molecules (not
atoms) called monomers, bind to form huge
• 4 Types: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins &
Nucleic acids
Why do people eat a bowl of
pasta before a competition???
• Includes: Sugars, starches, cellulose
& glycogen
• Made of Carbon ( C ), Hydrogen ( H ),
and Oxygen (O )/ 2:1 ratio H:O
• Following ratio of elements CnH2nOn
• Sugars: Provide immediate energy
for cells
• Simple sugars include Glucose,
Galactose & Fructose since these are
made of only 1 Carbohydrate
molecule they are known as
Glucose: A Monosaccharide
Dehydration Synthesis
• Monosaccharides can be linked together through the process of
Dehydration Synthesis
– Water is removed from 2 monocaccharides - resulting in a covalent
bond between the 2 molecules
• Sucrose (table sugar) is made of 2 sugars linked together and
these are called Disaccharides
• Require some digestion to be used by cells
Dehydration synthesis is a reversible process Called Hydrolysis.
A water molecule is inserted where the monomers join. Breaking
their bonds.
Dehydration Synthesis Simplified
Hydrolysis Simplified
• Starches are many monosaccharides linked
together in a single chain. These are called
– Plants use Starch for energy storage e.g. Potatoes
– Two types of starches
• Amylose - Long strait unbranched chains
• Pectins - many linked short Amylose chains
Cellulose is made of long polysaccharide chains
Plants use this for structure (e.g. Wood) - not very digestible
Due to the reverse orientation of the monosaccharide subunits,
digestive enzymes cannot hydrolyze the bonds between them
• Glycogen is a moderately branched polysaccharide
• Animals use this for short-term energy storage.
• Mostly stored in the human liver until converted to
What makes McDonald’s fries taste
SOOOO good?
• ?
Lipids are
including Fats,
Waxes and Oils.
Primary function is
energy storage.
Energy is stored in
C-H bonds.
More efficient in
storing energy
Lipids are made of 2
Glycerol - an alcohol
- Serves as
backbone of the
3 Fatty acids - Long
hydrocarbon chains
Dehydration Synthesis of a Lipid
Hydrolysis of a Lipid
Types of fats
• Saturated fats have long chains with no double-bonds
• Unsaturated fats have double bonds
• Polyunsaturated fats have many double bonds
– Each time a double bond is encountered, the molecule "Bends"
slightly, resulting in a lower density of the lipid. This makes the
molecule more likely to remain liquid at room or body
temperatures. And thus, less likely to clog cardiac arteries.
Other Lipids
• 4 Other types of biologically important Lipids
– Phospholipids - Important for membrane structure
– Steroids - eg. Cholesterol & testosterone. Provide
membrane support / serve as hormones
– Terpenes - serve as important components of pigments
– Prostaglandins - appear to act like localized hormones to
induce cellular/tissue responses
What do you think is happening to
the proteins within these eggs????
• Proteins are made of Amino Acids
• There are 20 different amino acids. Each having a similar
general structure - Differ only in their “R” groups
Peptide Bonds
• Amino acids form proteins via dehydration synthesis forming
peptide bonds
• Two amino acids linked together are called dipeptides
• More than 2 linked together are called polypeptides polypeptides can be thousands of amino acids long
of a protein
Hydrolysis of a Protein
Protein Structure
• Protein types include globular
proteins which are usually enzymes
and Fiberous proteins which usually
serve for structure (eg. Hair)
• Proteins Exhibit 4 “levels of
Primary Structure
• Primary Structure of
a protein is it’s
sequence of amino
• Primary Structure
dictates all further
levels of protein
Secondary Structure
• The Sequence (primary
structure) causes parts of a
protein molecule to fold into
sheets or bend into helix
shapes - this is a protein’s
Secondary Structure.
Tertiary Structure
• The protein then can
compact and twist on
itself to form a mass
called it’s Tertiary
Quaternary Structure
Several Proteins then
can can combine and
form a protein’s
Quaternary Structure
Various conformations
are usually caused by
the formation of
hydrogen or disulfide
PH, changes or heat can
disrupt these bonds,
permanently denaturing
the protein.
Nucleic Acids
Two types of Nucleic
RNA (Ribonucleic
DNA is Formed of in
a "Double Helix" like a spiral
DNA is formed from
These are made of 3
– A 5-Carbon Sugar
– A Nitrogenous base
– A Phosphate group
Nucleotides form a backbone
through linkages from the OH
group of the 3rd carbon to a
phosphate group of the
adjoining nucleotide. These
are called Phosphodiester
Types of Nucleotides
For DNA There are 4 different Nucleotides categorized as either
Purines (double ring) or Pyramidines (single ringed). These are usually
represented by a letter. These Are:
Adenine (A)
Cytosine (C)
Guanine (G)
Thymine (T)
Base Pairing Rules
• Each "Rung" of the DNA "staircase" is formed by the linking
of 2 Nucleotides through Hydrogen Bonds.
• These Hydrogen bonds form only between specific
Nucleotides. This is known as Base Pairing. The rules are as
– Adenine (A) will ONLY bond to Thymine (T)
– Cytosine (C) will ONLY bond to Guanine (G)
Summary of DNA Structure
AKA ribonucleic acid
RNA differs from DNA in
several important ways.
It is much smaller
It is single-stranded
It does NOT contain
Thymine, but rather a new
nucleotide called Uracil
which will bind to Adenine.
Short for Adenosine Tri-Phosphate. ATP is
closely related to nucleic acids.
Composed of Ribose, Adenine & a phosphate
Phosphate group has ability to bind/release
additional phosphate group allowing it to store
or release energy