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PERSIAN Chart
AP World History
Culture/Civilization: Imperial China
POLITICAL
 Leaders, Elites
 State Structure
 War
 Diplomacy, Treaties
 Courts, Laws
ECONOMIC
 Type of System
 Technology, Industry
 Trade, Commerce
 Capital/Money
 Types of Businesses
RELIGIOUS
 Holy Books
 Beliefs, Teaching
 Conversion
 Sin/Salvation
 Deities
SOCIAL
 Family
 Gender Relations
 Social Classes
Date: 9/12/10
-Qin and Han governments demanded that peasant families supply men for labor
and military service.
-Census was held periodically.
-Warring States Period (480 – 221 B.C.E.)
-Qin unified China because of the ruthlessness of Shi Huangdi and his prime
minister Li Si. The Qin also had experience in mobilizing large amounts of
manpower.
-Qin established strong centralized state (Legalist).
-Qin suppressed Confucianism, eliminated rival authority, eliminated
primogeniture and slavery, made a rural economy of free land-owning tax-paying
farmers, standardized weights and measures, built roads to link the empire, and
constructed the great wall of China.
-Death of Shi Huangdi in 210 B.C.E. led to rebellion and eventual overthrow of
the dynasty.
-Liu Bang (peasant) defeated all contestants for control of China and established
Han dynasty.
-Han dynasty had a political system that drew on both Confucian philosophy and
Legalist techniques.
-Emperor Wu (Ruled 140 – 87 B.C.E.) expanded territory of dynasty.
-Central government run by two chief officials and numerous ministers.
-Local officials collected taxes, drafted men for labor, and settled local disputes.
-The Xiongnu were a group of nomads that were the Han’s main problem.
-Han dynasty fell due to financial problems, rebellions, nomadic attacks,
corruption, and the break down of military enlistment.
-Most important resources were agriculture and labor.
-Agricultural production taxed by government.
-China advanced from bronze to iron around 500 B.C.E.
-Chinese used molds instead to make cast iron instead of wrought-iron.
-Han dynasty brought invention of the crossbow, cavalry, watermill, and the horse
collar.
-Also invented courier system and canals for water transportation.
-Main export was silk, leading to the naming of the silk road (most important trade
route)
-Teachings of Confucius were a source of values for family, social, and political
organization.
-Confucius placed absolute authority with father
-Confucius also regarded hierarchy as natural.
-Confucius believed that people would fulfill their roles if they were correctly
instructed and imitated good role models.
-Believed in nature spirits.
-Unusual natural phenomena were ill omens.
-Fengshui (geomancy) = the idea that the placement and orientation of buildings
and graves determined amount of fortune.
-Family was basic unit of society.
-Ancestors were routinely consulted, appeased, and venerated.
-Women were to cook, take care of household chores, and obey husbands.
-Marriages were arranged and the wife had to prove herself by working hard,


Inequalities
Life Styles
obeying, devoting, and bearing sons to the husband.
-Chang’an elite lived lavish lifestyle.
-The commoners in Chang’an lived a basic lifestyle in very condensed
communities.
-Emperor was supreme in state and society. Regarded as Son of Heaven. Any
wrongdoing of the emperor could mean that they could lose the mandate of heaven
because of misrule.
-Gentry = class of moderately wealthy and educated local landowners.
-Gentry adopted Confucianism.
INTELLECTUAL
 Art, Music
 Writing, Literature
 Philosophy
 Math & Science
 Education
ARTS
 Art, Music
 Writing, Literature
NEAR: GEOGRAPHY
 Location
 Physical
 Movement
 Human/Environment
 Region
NOTES:
-China was diverse ecologically, topographically, biologically, and climatically.
-Yangzi Valley was most productive region.
-The Han expanded at expense of other ethnic groups.
-Han Capital was at Chang’an during the Western Han period (202 B.C.E. – 8
B.C.E.)
-Capital went to Luoyang during Eastern Han period (23-22 C.E.)