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• 5 W’S
Discussion time.
1. Do cultural areas, as opposed to states and
empires, better represent history?
– Cultural areas are those that share a common
– Respect for geographical limitations not followed
2. How does change occur within
Why are people moving around?
Change occurs because of internal
developments and external influences.
3. How similar were the economic and trading
practices that developed across cultures?
Monetary Systems
Trade Routes
Trade Practices
How do they link up?
4.How does the environment impact
human decision making?
• How do states respond to environmental
• Do they move or send out raiding parties?
• Are they able to respond quickly and
successfully to environmental changes?
Review of History Within Civilizations
600 CE-1450
• Classical Period collapses
• Long distance trade increases
– Caravans of Silk routes
– Multi-ethnic Indian Ocean sailors
– Trips across Sahara to West Africa
– Trade in Mediterranean
• Decentralization of Western Europe
• Expansion of trading empires of Middle East
and China
Developments in Asia
3 Major dynasties
Tang, Song, Ming
Developed Golden Ages
Tang(618-907 AD)
• Emperor Xuanzong
– Bureaucratic system (merit, civil service exams)
– Military garrisons along trade routes and capital Xi’an
– Tribute system (territories sent ambassadors and gifts “kowtow”)
• Expanded into Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea
• Golden Age
age of Buddhism
woodblock printing
Paper Money
Magnetic compass
Poetry tells of daily life
• Economy
– Paper money
– Letters of credit (flying cash)
Increased trade and cultural diffusion
• Local warlords gained power and dynasty collapsed
– Uighurs (nomadic Turks brought in the stop rebellions but eventually became attackers)
Song (960-1279 AD)
Song Taizu
– Used army and consolidated China
Similar rule as Tang
Capital in southern portion, Hangzhou
Wealth base on powerful navy and International trade
Golden Age
Moveable type (increased literacy)
Gunpowder used for military
Magnetic compass
Watertight bulkheads
Sternpost rudders for junks (merchant/battleships)
Iron production increased
Produced steel using water-driven-bellows to produce needed temp.
Introduction of champa RICE from Vietnam=population increase (115 million in 1200)
Peasant Rebellions and Mongols led to fall of dynasty
• 1368-1644
• Zhu Yuanzhang
– Red turban rebellion against Mongols
– Ended corruption and reestablished an authoritarian gov’t
bureaucracy using eunuchs
• Chengzu (son)
– Imperial Palace (Forbidden City) constructed in Beijing
• Golden Age
– Focused on Chinese culture
– Zheng He
• Sea expeditons led to increased trade
• Fortified Great Wall
• Expanded Canal System
• Nestorianism
– Christianity w/difference based on holy trinity
• Manicheans
– Persian founder Mani used cosmology to explain conflict between light
and dark, good or evil
• Zoroastrianism
– Persian
• Islam
• Buddhism
– Mahayana: nirvana can be attained through faith alone
– Chan/Zen: school of mahayana based on meditation and Dharma
• Confucianism
– Neo-Confucianism: Zhu Xi adapted Buddhist concepts to Confucian
values. Expanded into Vietnam, Korea and Japan
• Doaism
• Confucian=subordinate
• Under Tang:
– Empress Wu Zhoa took over after husband’s
– Considered fair-minded.
• Footbinding
– Strengthened Confucian ideas
Silla Dynasty
Unified Korea
Vassal state of Tang 7th century
Adopted Confucian values
Koryo Dynasty
Copied chinese civil service exams
• Choson/Yi Dynasty
– 1392-1910
– Established after Mongols left
• Hermit Kingdom
• 19th century term used for its
closed door policy for
• Cultural bridge btwn. China and
• North subdued by Tang
• South rebelled
• Both absorbed agricultural
ideas, schools of thought,
and irrigation techniques.
• Maintained indigenous
• Women more active in
• 4 main islands: isolation
• Influenced by Korea and China
• Yamato Clan
5th century
First and only dynasty
Direct descendent of Amaterasu Shinto sun goddess
Prince Shotoku
• Taika Reforms
– Borrowed ideas on gov’t from Tang
– Rejected confucianism
– Grand Council of State –administrative districts
– Heian Period
• Fujiwara Family
• Ruled Japan 794 after Shotoku’s death
• Golden Age
– Lady Murasaki Tale of the Genji
Feudal Japan
• Developed same time as in Europe
• Kamakura Shogunate
1192 Yoritomo Minamoto
Bakufu “Tent” system of gov’t
Shogun chief general
Daimyo (powerful land owners
Samurai (warrior/nobility)
Bushido (code of Behavior)
• Zen Buddhism
• Loyalty, courage, honor
• Women were not held in high esteem, could not learn chinese
• Kyoto Shogunate
– 1333 Ashikaga
– Onin War 1467-1477 threatened unity
– Samurai gained immense respect-carry weapons and have last names
• Dark Ages (476 AD -800)
– End of Roman Rule in western Europe
– Rise of Tribes (Franks, Saxons, vikings)
– learning/education
• Preserved by monks and muslims
• Based off of ancient writings
– decentralized government
• Owed alegiances
– no common language
• Latin for educated
– no unity
Europe 6th century
Middle Ages (800-1300)
– fiefdom= system of loyalties
– Manorialism-self sufficient estate
– Chivalry-code of conduct
Church-most powerful institution
– political-economic-social organization
– controlled about 1/3 of the
land in Western Europe.
– tried to curb feudal warfare
• only 40 days a year for combat.
– curb heresies
• Crusades
• Inquisition
– tithe
• 1/10 tax on your assets given to
the church.
– Holy Roman Empire
A political, economic, and social system based on
loyalty and military service
Parts of a Medieval Castle
Carcassonne: A Medieval Castle
The Medieval Manor
The Medieval Catholic Church
 filled the power vacuum left from the
collapse of the classical world.
 monasticism:
St. Benedict – Benedictine Rule of
poverty, chastity, and obedience.
 provided schools for the children of
the upper class.
 inns, hospitals, refuge in times of war.
 libraries & scriptoria to copy books
and illuminate manuscripts.
 monks  missionaries to the
barbarians. [St. Patrick, St. Boniface]
The Power of the Medieval Church
 bishops and abbots played a large part in
the feudal system.
 the church controlled about 1/3 of the
land in Western Europe.
 tried to curb feudal warfare  only 40
days a year for combat.
 curb heresies  crusades; Inquisition
 tithe  1/10 tax on your assets given to
the church.
 Peter’s Pence  1 penny per person
[paid by the peasants].
Romanesque Architectural Style
 Rounded Arches.
 Barrel vaults.
 Thick walls.
 Darker, simplistic interiors.
 Small windows, usually at the top of the wall.
A Medieval Monk’s Day
A Medieval Monastery: The Scriptorium
Illuminated Manuscripts
The Rise of European Monarchies:
• Saxons were brought
over by the
Romans/Britons as
mercenaries early 5th
• They expanded their
territory and controlled
much of England until
William the Conqueror:
Battle of Hastings, 1066
(Bayeaux Tapestry
Magna Carta, 1215
• King John I
• “Great Charter”
• monarchs were not
above the law.
• kings had to
consult a council of
• kings could not tax
Evolution of England’s Political System
 Henry I:
• William’s son.
• set up a court system.
• Exchequer  dept. of royal finances.
 Henry II:
• established the principle of common law throughout
the kingdom.
• grand jury.
• trial by jury.
The Beginnings of the British Parliament
• Great Council:
o middle class merchants, townspeople
Great Council:
[burgesses in Eng., bourgeoisie in Fr.,
in Ger.] were added at the
• middle burghers
end of themerchants,
bourgeoisie in Fr.,
o eventually
in Ger.]
added at the
o by 1400,
two chambers
end of othe
of Lords = nobles & clergy.
o House of Commons = knights and
• eventually
called Parliament.
• by 1400, two chambers evolved:
• House of Lords: nobles & clergy.
• House of Commons: knights and burgesses.
The Rise of European Monarchies:
• 3 C’s
– Clovis, Charles Martel, Charlemagne
• Capetians
– 987 Hugh Capet selected after death
of last Carolingian emperor.
– Controlled Normandy, Brittany,
Burgundy, Aquitaine
– Established the Estates General (3
– 1066 William of Normandy
conquered England bringing territory
with him. (Angevin Kingdom) –
Hiundred Years’ War
Charlemagne: 742 to 814
Charlemagne’s Empire
Pope Crowned Charlemagne
Holy Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800
The Carolingian Renaissance
Carolingian Miniscule
Treaty of Verdun 843
Holy Roman Empire
800 Charlemagne 1st HRE
962 Otto I proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by
Tensions between Pope and Emperor
1075 Investiture Contest Controversy
Secular German group of states
1176 Frederick Barbarossa
Pope chooses spiritual leaders, Emperor chooses
political leaders
Voltaire “neither holy, nor Roman, nor an
Pope Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV for
attempting to name bishops
1122 Concordat of Worms
Saxons convert or be killed
Saxon King Widukind converted 785
Tried to enlarge empire through northern Italy
1220-1250: Frederick II
King of Italy and German States
Promoted arts and science
After Justinian:
• Controlled by Lombards
• 773 Charlemagne took over
• Otto I combined Italy and
Germany making HRE
• 10th Century rise of City-States
– Burghers rose in power
Trade with Muslims
Banking Centers
Medici family
Venice + Genoa important cities
• Agricultural Revolution (after 900)
– New inventions (harness for horses,3 field system,
moldboard plow)
– More food =more people= more trade routes = fairs
• Crusades-Holy Wars (1095- 1270) resulted in increased:
– Trade, cultural diffusion, knowledge
• Commercial Revolution(1500s)
– New business practices (checks, banks)
– Capital = $ exchanged instead of bartering
– end of feudalism
– Important trade cities (Venice, Hanseatic League)
Pope Urban II: Preaching a Crusade
Setting Out on Crusade
Christian Crusades: East and West
Medieval Guilds
Commercial Monopoly:
• Guild Hall
• Controlled membership
• apprentice
• journeyman
• master craftsman
• Commercial Monopoly:
• Controlled quality of the
o Controlled membership
product [masterpiece].
• Controlled
apprentice  journeyman
 master
o Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece].
o Controlled prices
Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmith’s Shop
Crest of a Cooper’s Guild
• 1348 Bubonic Plague
– trade declined
– church lost power
– 1/3 population died
• Hundred Years’ War 1337-1453
– War between France and Britain over land
• Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648
– Between German Princes and Holy Roman Empire
over religion
– Treaty of Westphalia brought peace
Europe-> Renaissance (1300-1650)
• Rebirth of Classics
– Greek and Roman
– Golden Age
• Begins in Italy b/c of:
urban centers
wealthy merchants
humanism= focus on human achievements not just religion
Art focus=realism
• Michelangelo, da Vinci-most famous
– Writers:
• Machiavelli-The Prince (end justifies the means) rulers
should do anything to gain and keep power.
• Johannes Gutenberg-printing press-#books increase, vernacular,
spread of ideas.
Medieval Universities
• Arose 11th century
– Bologna, Paris, Oxford
• 1st in Paris
• Students subject to Church
(town vs gown)
• Granted charters
• Studied art, law, medicine,
– Received degree in levels
• Bachelor
• Master
• Doctorate
– Daily life equivalent to monastic
Oxford University
Late Medieval Town Dwellings
Byzantine Empire
• Extension of Roman Empire
– 313 Christianity Accepted
– 330 Constantine converts
– (Greco-Roman heritage)
• Used Greek language
• Domes in architecture
• Constantinople
– capital of Eastern Empire
– Protected by water + walls
– Major trading power (Western Europe-Arab empire)
• Emperors
– Ruled with absolute authority
• Economy (monopolized Silk production taken from China)
– Coined money
• Justinian and Theodora (527-565)
– Rivaled Islamic Baghdad
– code of laws
• Kept ancient Roman legal principles alive
– Hagia Sophia
• Flowering of arts, sciences and architecture
• Mosaic art
– Tried to reunite east +west failed due to plague
• Orthodox Christianity
– Secular rulers headed Church
– Disagreements on:
• Sacrament of communion, priests allowed to marry, use of
vernacular in church, placement of icons, pope vs patriarch
Fall of Byzantine Empire
• Arab groups overran territory
– Turks migrated to Anatolia
– Osman
• built empire out of Byzantine territories
• Controlled Balkans
• 1453 Constantinople captured by Ottoman
– Mehmud the Conqueror
Shaped developing cultures of Russia
and Eastern Europe.
• Byzantine Missionaries converted Russia and Slavic
– Cyril and Methodious: alphabet
• 957 Queen Olga converted
• King Vladimir
– Converted and ordered thousands to be baptized in the
Dnieper River
• Russian Orthodox
– Alligned w/Byzantine
• 1272 Fall to the Tartars=Mongols
– 1400s Ivan III expands territory + declared himself czar
Middle East
• Crossroads of the World (Europe, Africa, Asia)
• Cultural diffusion-> Trade
• Preserved ancient writings of Greeks and Romans
• Islam
Rise of Islam
Mid 600s
5 Pillars
Jihad “to struggle”
Accepts Abraham, Moses and Jesus
2 groups
– Shiite vs Sunni
• Sunni: “people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)” caliph should be good person
• Shiite/Shia: caliphite must go to a descendent
Empire grows as Religion Splits
• 632 Mohammad dies
• Capital Mecca
• First 4 Caliphs
– Abu Bakr –caliph-theocracy-caliphate
– Umar
– Uthan
– Ali –assassinated and son Hasan gives power over
to Umayyads
• Umayyads
Capital Damascus, Syria
Gold and silver coins standard monetary unit
Expanded empire from northern Africa to Spain
• Conversion “encouraged” taxed if not
Tried to go further into Europe from west and east.
Official language of government
Built Dome of the Rock
Defeated by forces of Abu al-Abbas and replaced by
Abbasid Dynasty around 750
Abbasid Dynasty 750-1258
– Shiite Muslims
– Baghdad (capital)
– Trade increased
• Location prime for trade
• Defeated Tang Chinese 751 over trading post on Silk Road
– Pows carrying paper- Abbasids figured out how to make paper
• Introduced Credit
• Itemized receipts and bills
– Golden Age
Production of steel (swords)
Mohammad al-Razi published medical encyclopedia
Libraries and universities
– Expanded into Levant (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon)
– Sufis
• Islamic mystics/missionaries
• Made Islam adaptable for others led to conversions
• Seljuk Turks
Nomadic warriors from the central Asian Steppes
Hired by Muslim leaders as mercenaries
1055 Captured Baghdad/Abbasssid Dynasty
1071 defeated took Anatolia (Turkey) from Byzantine Empire
1258 conquered by Hulegu (Kublai Khan’s brother)
• Many converted to Islam
• 1206-1526 Delhi Sultanate
Afghan turks
Non-muslims taxed
Destruction of Hindu temples
Colleges founded
Irrigation improved
Destroyed by Mongols
Women and Islam
• Women = Property
– No divorce (husband can keep dowry)
– No property
– Female infanticide
– QU’RAN (651-652)
• Subservient, treated with more dignity, some legal
rights, equal before Allah, divorce/return dowry,
infanticide forbidden
• Men/4 wives, property passed through men, women=
½ in court, restriction on what they wore
Decline in Islamic Caliphates
• Internal Rivalries
– Differences between Shi and Sunni sects
– Ethnic groups
• Turkish slaves/mamluks revolted set up capital in Samarra Iraq
• Shia group in northern Iran
• Sunni Seljuk Turks
– Destabalized central authority in Baghdad and cut tax
• Mongol Invasions
– 1258 destroyed Baghdad ending Abbasid Dynasty
• Ottoman Turks
– Reunited Egypt, Syria and Arabia
Ghengis Khan: Temujin (1167-1227)
The Mongols
– 1234 conquered lands throughout China
• Empire spanned from Pacific Ocean to eastern Europe
• Karakorum-capital
• Steppe diplomacy
• “Submit and live. Resist and die.”
– 1st Pony Express + postal system
– Tax breaks for teachers + clerics
– Spilt into hordes (small independent empires)/4 regions
Khanate of the Golden Horde (Tartars)
• Batu (grandson) controlled most of Russia
– Vasaal state
– Locals collected taxes
Khanate of Changatai: Yuan dynasty (1279-1368)
• Kublai Khan (grandson)
– Pax Mongolia: guarded trade routes (Silk Road)
– Foreigner emplolyed in bureaucracy, civil service not used
– Marco Polo
Ilkhanate of Persia (Hulegu: Kublai’s brother)
– Persia-Baghdad: stopped in Syria by Egyptian forces
Timur Lang (1370)
– Aka Tamerlane
– Ghengis Khan = role model
– Capital Samarkand
– Conquered parts of India
Impact of Mongols
• Diffusers of culture
– Assimilated with some conquered cultures
– Chinese were not allowed to Mongolize
– Increased world trade
• Protected Silk Road
• Welcomed missionaries + merchants
– By 1450 well into decline
• 1260 Mamluks (Egyptian slave dynasty) stopped Mongols
from moving into Africa
• 1274 + 1281 tried to invade Japan
– Kamikaze
• West Africa
– Land of Gold
– Ghana (500s-1200)
• Trans-Saharan Trade
• Commercial site
• Traded gold (from south) controlled and taxed in return for
salt, ivory, slaves, horses, cloth
• Large army funded by tax on trade
• Merchants-Islam
• 1000 CE under assault from northen Berbers, eventually
absorbed by Mali
– Mali (1230s-1433 CE)
• Sundiata (ruler + Epic story)
• Mansa Musa (1312-1337)
– Devout Muslim: hajj = cultural diffussion
– Timbuktu: political capital,center for education, religion, culture
• After 1350 provinces broke away for independence
East Africa
• Indian Ocean trade
• Coast settled by Bantu
• Swahili City-states emerged
Governed by Kings-converted to Islam
• Traded gold, slaves, ivory for pottery, glass and textiles from
Persia, India and China.
• 1100-1450 Zimbabwe (Changamire)
– Rose from Shona people (gold, glass beads, bronze+ iron)
– Great Zimbabwe
Ibn Battuta
Marco Polo
Rabban Sauma
Muslim Scholar from
Merchant from Venice Nestorian Christian
priest from Mongol
Empire in China
Places Traveled
Dar al-Islam, West Africa,
India, Southeast Asia
Silk Road
Pilgrimage from
Beijing to Jerusalem.
Sent to France and
England to meet with
Pope and Kings on
alliance against
Muslims by Persian
Mongol King Ilkhan
Demonstrated widespread
of Islam.
Government positions as a
qadi or judge in lands
Employed by Kublai
Khan oversaw
mercantile and
domestic missions in
Did not get support.
What else is going on?
• South America
– 1000 Chimor/Chimu along Peruvian Coast
• Thriving agriculture
• Overrun by Incas late 1400s
• Oceania:
Trade networks did not emerge due to distance.
Long voyages introduced sweet potato to islands
Agricultural and fishing socieites
Islands differed in culture