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Transcript
Chapter 4
Ancient Greece
1750 B.C. – 133 B.C.
Chapter 4, Section 1
Early People of the Aegean
Minoans Trade and Prosper



Located on the island of Crete
The civilization was later named Minoa after
Minos, the legendary King of Crete
Through contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia,
they acquired ideas and technology in fields such
as writing and architecture

These were adopted to their culture (What does that
show us?)
Minoan Civilization Disappears



Reached its height between 1600 B.C. and 1500
B.C.
By about 1400 B.C. the Minoan Civilization had
vanished
A sudden volcanic eruption on a nearby island
or a sudden earthquake may have caused the
civilization to vanish
Mycenaean Civilization



This civilization dominated the Aegean Sea from
about 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.
Like the Minoans, the Mycenaeans were sea
traders
Learned many skills from the Minoans such as:
Writing
 Customs from Mesopotamia that were adopted by
the Minoans

Mycenaean Civilization



This civilization was located on a steep, rocky
ridge surrounded by a protective wall up to 20
feet thick
This protected them from almost any attack
Archaeologists have found treasures from
wealthy rulers of this civilization

Fine gold ornaments were found in their tombs
The Trojan War




Around 1200 B.C. the Mycenaeans fought a 10
year war with the independent trading city of
Troy (in present day Turkey).
Troy controlled the straits between the
Mediterranean and Black Seas
The War lasted approximately 10 years until the
Greeks seized Troy and burnt it to the ground
http://www.timelessmyths.com/classical/trojanwar.html
Dorian Civilization



Shortly after the collapse of the Mycenaean
civilization, the Dorians moved to Greece
Although the Greeks lacked writing, epics
became the method used to tell stories (oral
tradition)
Epics: narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds

Homer is most commonly connected with epics and
his include The Iliad and The Odyssey
Epics



Homer ( 750 B.C.) was a blind poet who
wandered from village to village speaking of
heroic deeds
Iliad  is the chief source of info about the
Trojan War
Odyssey  tells of the struggles of Odysseus

Both explain a lot about Greek culture and values of
the time
Greek Mythology




The Greeks also developed a rich set of Myths
– traditional stories about their Gods.
Greeks attributed human qualities (love, hate,
jealousy, etc.) to their Gods.
The Gods explained the un-explainable
For many years, the area of Greece existed with
no advancement and was isolated from the
outside world

Eventually, city-states emerge
Chapter 4, Section 2
The Rise of Greek City - States
Geography of Greece



Lies on the Balkan Peninsula.
It consists of approximately 1,000 islands in the
Aegean and Ionian Seas.
Mountains cover ¾ of ancient Greece



Transportation was very difficult.
Only 20% of the land is suitable for farming.
Hard to unite and build a large empire

Instead, it was a network of city states
Geography of Greece


Sea travel became very important to the Greeks
It connected them with other societies



Phoenician alphabet was expanded by the Greeks
and became the basis for western alphabets
Traded olive oil, wine, and marble around the
Mediterranean
Expanded population forced them to set up
colonies around the Mediterranean

Egypt, Spain etc...
Governing the City - States


The Polis – or City-State, began to emerge by
750 B.C.
A polis is made up of the city and its
surrounding country side


Controlled between 50 and 500 square miles of
territory
The acropolis, or public center, was often
located on the hilltop and was where male
citizens gathered to conduct business
Forms of Government
Monarchy
Aristocracy
Oligarchy
Direct
Democracy
State
State
State
State
ruled by a
King
Rule
is hereditary
Some
rulers claim
divine right
Practiced
in
Mycenae (1450 B.C)
ruled by
nobility
Rule is hereditary
and based on land
ownership
Social status and
wealth support
rulers’ authority
Practiced
(954 B.C.)
ruled by a
small group of
citizens
ruled by its
citizens
Rule
Rule
is based on
is based on
citizenship
wealth
Majority
Ruling
group
controls military
in Athens
rule
decides vote
Practiced
Practiced
in Sparta
(800 – 600 B.C.)
(461 B.C.)
in Athens
Sparta: A Warrior Society

Located in the southern part of Greece, Sparta
was nearly cut off from the rest of Greece


Unlike the other city-states, Sparta built a military
state
Sparta’s population consisted of (1) a small
number of Spartan citizens and (2) a large
number of peasants known as helots, who
worked the land
Sparta’s Government

Two groups governed Sparta:
(1) An Assembly – composed of all free adult
males, elected officials, and voted on major issues
 (2) Council of Elders – it proposed laws on which
the assembly voted. Five elected officials called
ephors carried out the laws the council passed


In addition, two kings ruled over Sparta’s
military.
Sparta’s Society

Consisted of several social groups

Citizens who descended from the original
inhabitants of the region.

This included the ruling families who owned the land.
Non-citizens, but free, worked in commerce and
industry.
 Helots, bottom of society, higher than slaves.


Some served as household servants or worked for the
hoplite warriors.
Sparta’s Education

For men, daily life centered around military
training


Boys left home at the age of 7 to join the military
Sparta had the most powerful military in all of
Greece
All forms of individual expression were discouraged
 Sparta is more important than the individual

Athens Evolves into a Democracy


Athens contrasted sharply with Sparta.
Athenian government progressed through a
variety of stages:
(1) Monarchy
(2) Aristocracy
(3) Tyranny
(4) Democracy
 Repeated clashes occurred between the aristocrats
who governed Athens and the common people
Leaders/Reforms in Athens

Solon – in 594 B.C. wrote laws to:






(1) cancel mortgages on land
(2) free persons enslaved for debt
(3) limit the amount of land owned by one person
(4) allow all male citizens to serve on juries
(5) grant male commoners the right to vote.
Despite all of these changes, the wealthy still
retained control of the government
Leaders/Reforms in Athens

Clisthenes – in 508 B.C. expanded democracy
by extending citizenship to more males and
allowed all economic classes to serve in the
Council



Ostracism: Being cut off from society
Happened to anyone who was deemed dangerous to the state
At this time, only 1/5 of Athenian residents
were actual citizens who could participate in
government
Women in Athens


No share in political life
Women played their most significant role in
religion


Their participation in sacred processions and
ceremonies was considered essential for the city’s
well – being
In Athenian homes, women managed the entire
household
Forces for Unity

Although divided into several hundred independent
city-states, the Greeks were united by a common
culture:



Language and literature
Religion  shared a polytheistic religion throughout city –
states
Olympic Games  used to honor the Gods, especially
Zeus


The first events were composed of racing, jumping, discus, boxing,
and wrestling
Fear of Persia  feared the Persians would try to conquer
them
Review
Another name for city – state is?
1)




A
B
C
D
New York
Spain
Polis
Acropolis
In Athenian households, women managed which of the
following?
2)




A
B
C
D
Entire household
Garage
Cooking/cleaning
Laundry
Chapter 4, Section 3
Conflict in the Greek World
The Persian Wars

The Persians controlled the entire Middle East,
including Greek colonies in Asia Minor

In 500 B.C. these colonies revolted and received
military aid from Athens
•The King of Persia
was determined to
punish Athens and
take over all of
Greece
Persian Wars

Athenians Win at Marathon
Battle of Marathon – 490 B.C. the King of Persia
invaded Greece but was defeated by a smaller
Athenian force
 With the glad news, a Greek messenger ran 26 miles
from Marathon to Athens
 Themistocles led Athens to prepare for and repel
further attacks


He rushed the construction of 200 additional warships and organized
most Greek city-states, including Sparta, into a defensive alliance
Greek City-States Unite

Thermopylae – the Persians overwhelmed the Greeks
at the Pass of Thermopylae, however 300 Spartans tried
to hold the pass.


The Greeks then evacuated Athens and tried to fight a
battle in the sea



All were killed
Two great naval battles took place at the islands of Salamis
and Mycale
The Persians withdrew
With the Persian threat removed, the Greeks were able
to develop a rich civilization.
Athenian Democracy



The years after the Persian Wars (460 B.C. – 429
B.C.) were a golden age for Athens
Pericles wise and skillful leadership helped
the economy thrive and make the government
more democratic
Became a direct democracy  citizens took
part directly in the day – to – day affairs of
government
Athenian Democracy

Athenian assembly met several times per month
under Pericles
Assembly consisted of 500 people
 All people received stipends  fixed salary for
participating



Pericles believed all people, regardless of wealth
or social class, should participate in government
Athenians could vote to banish or send away a
public figure who they believe posed a threat
Peloponnesian War




Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state
and developed the Delian League
Many others resented Athens's power and
formed the Peloponnesian League under Sparta
Peloponnesian encouraged Oligarchy while
Delian encouraged Democracy
War broke out and engulfed all of Greece for 27
years
Sparta Defeats Athens



Sparta declared war against Athens in 431 B.C.
Sparta had the advantage because the inland city
could not be attacked by the sea
The Spartans marched into Athenian territory,
forcing all Athenians to retreat behind Athens’s
walls
In the second year of battle, a plague killed 1/32/3 of the Athenian population, including
Pericles
Sparta Defeats Athens

A second disaster struck Athens as a huge fleet,
carrying 27,000 soldiers, tried to destroy the
Spartan ally, Syracuse, and this backfired



The Athenian fleet was destroyed
Finally in 404 B.C. Athens surrendered
Athens lost its empire and Sparta was weakened
by the war

The anti-democratic policies were unable to unite
Greece
Review
Under the Athenian Democracy how many people were
involved in the Assembly?
1)




A
B
C
D
400
25
500
100
Why did Sparta have an advantage when fighting Athens?
2)




A
B
C
D
Sparta had many more military innovations than Athens
Sparta made nasty faces towards the Athenians
Athens was scared to death of Sparta
The inland city could not be attacked by sea
Chapter 4, Section 4
The Glory that was Greece
Greek Philosophy





During this time of uncertainty for the Greeks,
people were determined to search for the truth.
Philosophy - Love and pursuit of wisdom by
intellectual means and moral self-discipline.
Looked for truth through use of logic
(reasoning)
Questioned issues of ethics and morality
Greece was known for three famous
philosophers: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.
Socrates (469-399 B.C.)
• Advocated “Know thyself.”
• Sought truth through persistent
questioning- an approach called
the Socratic method.
• He was brought to trial for
corrupting the minds of youth,
questioning tradition and
disrespecting the gods.
• He was condemned to death by
drinking poison.
• He left no writings, however, his
work is found through his
students, such as Plato.
Plato (427 – 347 B.C.)
•Famous work, The Republic, explained a
perfectly governed society (rejected
democracy because it condemned Socrates)
•All citizens would fall into one of three
groups:
1. Farmers and artisans (provide)
2. Warriors (defend)
3. Ruling class (govern)
• The person with the greatest
insight and intellect would be
chosen as philosopher-King.
•Educated talented women
•His most famous student was Aristotle.
Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.)
•Wrote about philosophy, science,
government and literature.
•His important works were Logic
and Politics.
•He invented a method for arguing
according to rules of logic.
•His work provides the basis for
scientific methods used today.
Art and Architecture

The Parthenon, was not novel in style.



Rather, it was the style used to create Greek temples
of 200 years.
Sculpture – figures were aimed to be graceful,
strong, and perfectly formed. The faces did not
show laughter or anger, only serenity.
Classical Art – came from the Greek values of
order, balance, and proportion.
Art and Architecture
Greek Literature


Greek Drama – the Greeks invented drama and
built the first theaters in the west.
The Greeks wrote two kinds of drama:

Tragedy – a serious drama about themes such as
love, hate, war or betrayal.
 Comedy – contained scenes filled with funny
situations and crude humor.
Recording Events as History

Herodotus  Father of History in the Western
world
Recorded events throughout history and went
beyond writing down names of rulers and retelling
war stories
 Herodotus would travel to many different lands
collecting information from people who lived
through certain events

Review
Which famous philosopher’s work was known as “The
Republic”?
1)



A
B
C
Socrates
Aristotle
Plato
Which type of Greek Drama deals with serious themes
like love, hate, betrayal?
2)



A
B
C
Comedy
Tragedy
Sit – com
Chapter 4, Section 5
Alexander and the Hellenistic Age
Empire of Alexander the Great


Philip II Conquers Greece
Just north of Greece, lay the kingdom of
Macedonia


Greeks saw them as uncivilized foreigners.
Philip II became King of Macedonia in 359 B.C.
He quickly formed a large army.
 Eventually the Greek cities of Athens and Thebes
joined to fight Philip, but it was too late.

Empire of Alexander the Great



Philip’s son, Alexander, took over Greece
Because of his accomplishments over the next
13 years, he became known as Alexander the
Great
Alexander was 20 years old when he became
King and had studied under Aristotle.
Alexander Defeats Persia

Early in his days as a leader, the city of Thebes
rebelled, he destroyed the entire city killing about
6,000 people




The rest were sold into slavery
Other Greek cities gave up the idea of rebellion
Once Greece was stable, he wanted to carry out his
father’s idea to invade Persia
Alexander was sweeping into the Persian Empire
and although the Persian army was larger, surprise
attacks led to Alexander gaining control of
Anatolia.
Alexander Defeats Persia




The King of Persia, Darius, tried to negotiate
peace by offering the western third of his empire
Alexander rejected the offer, wishing to take
over all of Persia
He took over Egypt, founded the city of
Alexandria on the Nile and began moving east
to Mesopotamia
Within a short time, the army occupied the
entire Persian Empire
Alexander Moves On

Alexander then moved east into India



He was able to defeat a powerful Indian army
His soldiers were exhausted after fighting for 11
years and Alexander agreed to turn back
After one year of return, Alexander died because
of a fever. He was just short of 33 years old.
Alexander’s Death


After Alexander’s death, the empire was divided
into three major kingdoms:
(1) Macedonia – including part of Greece
(2) Syria – including most of southwest Asia
(3) Egypt
These existed independently until they fell under
the control of Rome
Hellenistic Culture



Hellenistic Culture – the blending of Greek,
Egyptian, Persian and Indian influences.
The African city of Alexandria became the
center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
There were many advances made within the
Hellenistic Culture
 Art
 Science
 Math/Astronomy
Advancements in Science and
Technology


Astronomy – the stars and planets were studied. It was
proposed that the earth and other planets revolve around
the sun, at first this was not accepted
Math and Physics – the first Geometry text was compiled,
Euclid compiled a book of geometry propositions and
proofs.


Archimedes estimated the circumference of a circle to its
diameter
He also invented the pulley, screw and other scientists built a
force pump and even a steam engine
Advancements in Art & Philosophy


Stoicism – founded by Zeno, believed in a
divine power who controlled the universe.
People should live a virtuous life in harmony
with natural law
Sculpture – sculptors created more realistic and
emotional works

The largest known Hellenistic sculpture was the
Colossus of Rhodes, which stood more than 100
feet high and was made of bronze
Review
Why did Alexander reject the offer made by the King of
Persia (Darius)?
1)




A
B
C
D
Because Alexander was selfish
Because Darius would have backed out
Because he wanted to control all of Persia
Because he had no choice
Hellenistic Culture is the blending of what four
influences?
2)




A
B
C
D
African, American, Spanish, Asian
Persian, Canadian, Mesopotamian, American
Egyptian, Persian, American, Spanish
Egyptian, Persian, Indian, Greek