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Unit 1: Structure of the Earth
Compare and Contrast the layers of the earth including
composition, relative temperature, and density.
The Crust
• Layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer
skin including the solid earth and
• Composition: oxygen, silicon, aluminum,
calcium, iron, sodium, potassium, and
• Relative Temperature: Vary from air
temperature to 870 oC
• Density: 2.5 to 3.0 times denser than
The Mantle
• Layer of hot rock between the
crust and core.
• Composition: silicon, oxygen,
iron, and magnesium
• Relative Temperature: 870oC to
• Density: 3.3 to 5.5 times denser
than water.
The Core
• Center of the Earth; under
extreme pressure
• Composition: iron and nickel
• Relative Temperature: 2,000oC
to 5,000oC
• Density: 10 to 13 times denser
than water
• The rigid layer formed from the
uppermost part of the mantle
and the crust together.
• Averages 100 km thick
• Upper part of the Mantle.
• Molten (melted) rock layer. About 175 km
Outer Core
• Area of molten metal that surrounds the
inner core. Because the earth rotates, the
outer core spins around the inner core and
that causes the earth's magnetism.
Inner Core
• A dense ball of iron and nickel, because of
the intense pressure this part is solid.