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Transcript
Elements and the Periodic
Table
Chapter 4
The Atom
Chapter 4.1 pg 124-130
Cornell Notes
Essential Questions
•
What is the structure of the atom?
•
What are the 3 subatomic particles?
•
What particles make up the nucleus?
1. The Atom
Atom: the smallest particle of an element
(pg:124-125)
Nucleus: the center of an atom; also where the
protons and neutrons can be found (pg:128)
electron clouds
nucleus
At the center of the
atom is a tiny nucleus
containing protons and
neutrons.
Surrounding the
nucleus is a cloud-like
region of moving
electrons.
A. Proton
Proton: positively charged particles in an atom’s
nucleus; mass = 1 amu (atomic mass unit)
Number of protons identifies the element
Number of protons and identifies the element =
atomic number
B. Neutron
Neutron: Particles with no charge in the nucleus;
mass = 1 amu
# of protons + the # of neutrons = mass
number/atomic mass
•
Adding or taking away neutrons DOES NOT change the
atom, it makes different isotopes
Isotopes- atoms of the same element that have
different numbers of neutrons.
Example: Carbon-12 = 6 neutrons, Carbon-13 =
7 neutrons, and Carbon-14 = 8 neutrons (pg:
130)
Isotopes or different elements?
•
•
•
T has 20 protons and 20 neutrons
Z has 20 protons and 21 neutrons
T and Z are isotopes
–
•
•
•
same # of protons, different # of neutrons
A has 31 protons and 39 neutrons
E has 32 protons and 38 neutrons
A and E are different elements
–
different # of protons
C. Electron
Electron: negatively charged particles in the
electron cloud; mass = 0 amu (very small It takes 1800
electrons to equal the mass of 1 proton)
# of electrons = # of protons in a neutral atom
Valence Electron- The electron(s) in the shell
farthest from the nucleus
electron clouds
Protons (+)
Valence
electron
Electrons
(-)
P+
N
nucleus
Neutron (0)
Protons (+)
Valence
electrons
Electron ()
P+
N
Neutron (0)
With your partner:
• Protons
– Can you name the charge, location and mass
• Neutrons
– Can you name the charge, location and mass
• Electrons
– Can you name the charge, location and mass
The electrons are arranged in a particular order. The
electrons fill the energy shells closest to the nucleus
first and then fill outward:
•
•
•
•
The first energy shell can hold up to 2 electrons
The second energy shell can hold up to 8 electrons
The third energy shell can hold up to 18 electrons
The fourth energy shell can hold up to 32 electrons
Electron Shell Diagram – *
First Energy Level
2 electrons
Second Energy
Level 8 electrons
Third Energy
Level 18 electrons
Fourth Energy
Level 32 electrons
Sub-Atomic Particle Review
Subatomic particle
Atomic mass in
atomic mass units
charge
location
Proton
1 amu
+
positive
nucleus
Neutron
1 amu
0
neutral
nucleus
_
negative
Orbits around
nucleus in
electron cloud
Electron
0 amu
Section 1 Review
Proton number Atomic number
Element
Symbol
8
8
Oxygen
O
1
1
Hydrogen
H
6
6
Carbon
C
7
7
Nitrogen
N
10
10
Neon
Ne
Review
Element
Atomic number Proton number
Atomic mass
(rounded)
Neutrons
Electrons
C
Carbon
6
6
12
6
6
Na
Sodium
11
11
23
12
11
Si
Silicon
14
14
28
14
14
O
Oxygen
8
8
16
8
8
Organizing the elements
Chapter 4.2
Cornell Notes
4.2 Essential Questions
•
How is the Periodic Table of the Elements (PTE) arranged?
1. Mendeleev
•
•
-Russian Chemist who looked for
patterns of properties of the
elements.
•
-He grouped the elements according
to the patterns and by increasing
atomic mass.
•
-This allows us to predict the
properties of missing elements.
2. Atomic Weight
•
The average of all the masses of all
the isotopes of an element
3. Using the periodic table
The properties of an element can be predicted
from its location on the periodic table
Elements are arranged in order of increasing
atomic weight
4. How to read the Periodic
Table
Atomic Numbernumber of protons
6
Atomic Massprotons
+neutrons
Atomic Symbol
C
12.011
First letter always
capitalized,
second never
4. How to read the Periodic
Table (partner review)
3
Li
6.941
5. Periods
Horizontal rows (pg. 134-135)
The properties gradually change as you move left
to right across the Periodic Table.
Indicates the number of electron shells
5. Periods
6. families or Groups
Vertical Columns (pg 134-135)
Similar Physical and Chemical properties
Indicates the number of Valence Electrons
6. Families or Groups
Review: With your partner
How is the PTE organized?
Vertical columns?
Horizontal rows?
What order are the elements
in?
Metals, Nonmetals, inert
gasses, and semimetals
Chapter 4.3 & 4.4
Cornell Notes
Essential Questions
Where are metals, nonmetals and semi metals on the
PTE?
•
What are the properties of metals, nonmetals and
semimetals?
•
What are the properties of elements in each family?
Metals, Nonmetals, and
Semimetals
• Metals and nonmetals are separated by a
stair-step line on the right side of the table.
• Metals are found to the left of the line
and nonmetals are found to the right of
the line.
• Elements that border the line on both
sides are called semi-metals.
The Periodic Table
Semimetals
Nonmetals
Metals
A. Metals
1. Found on the left of the periodic
table.
2. Have only a few electrons in outer
shell.
3.Most are solid, shiny, good conductors
of heat and electricity, malleable, are
ductile.
4. Alkali metals – Family/Group 1
5. Alkaline earth metals – Family/Group 2
6. Transition metals – Families/Groups 312
B. Nonmetals
1.Found on the right side of periodic table
2. Most are dull, not malleable or
ductile, not good conductors of heat or
electricity.
3.Valence electron shell is mostly or
completely full
C. Semi-Metals (metalloids)
1.Found along the zig-zag (stair step) line on the
periodic table; also called metalloids
2. They are semi-conductors that have
properties of both metals and non-metals.
3.The outer electron shell is about half
full.
With your partner
•
Can you identify where the metals, non metals
and semimetals are on the PTE
•
What are the properties of metal?
•
What are the properties of a nonmetal?
•
What are the properties of a semimetal?
Valence Electrons
•
Electrons that are in the outer shell
•
Valence Electrons determine reactivity
•
A full shell is stable
•
The valence shell is complete with 8 electrons
reactivity
•
Empty or Full
•
•
Close to full or close to empty
•
•
non reactive (inert)
very reactive
Half full or half empty
•
not as reactive
Nitrogen
Halogen
Oxygen
Lanthanides
Inert
Transition
Actinides
/ Family
Nobel
Family
Family
Carbon
Family
Alkaline
Earth
Boron
Alkali
Metals
Metals
Gases
A. Alkali Family
(1 Valence Electron)
•
The most reactive metals
•
Shiny and soft
•
Can be cut with a knife
B. Alkaline Earth Metals
(2 Valence Electrons)
•
Very Reactive
•
Silver colored metals, more dense than
family #1
C. Transition Metals
•
Have 1-2 Valence electrons
•
Includes many common metals such as
copper, iron, gold, and silver
D. Boron Family
(3 valence electrons)
•
Reactive Solids
E.Carbon Family
(4 Valence electrons)
•
Reactivity varies
•
All are solids
•
Carbon based molecules make up all
living things
F.Nitrogen Family
(5 valence electrons)
•
Reactivity varies
•
Nitrogen is the most
common element in
the atmosphere
G. Oxygen Family
(6 valence electrons)
•
Reactive
H. Halogen Family
(7 valence electrons)
•
•
•
-These are the
MOST REACTIVE NONMETALS
-Some are used as cleaners
I.Inert Gases (Noble Gases)
(8 valence electrons)
•
Stable – Not reactive!!
•
All are nonmetals, and all are gases
•
Helium only has 2 valence electrons
because it only HAS 2 electrons total
Lanthanide and Actinide Families
(2 valence electrons)
•
These are a part of
the transition element
family
Liquids, gases and semi
metals
•
The majority of elements are solids (so we
are not labeling those)
•
Find and mark (be creative) the liquids
•
Find and mark (be creative) the gases
•
Darken the stair step line for metalloids and
outline the boxes of elements that are semimetals