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1861 - 1865
• SSUSH9 The student will identify key events, issues, and
individuals relating to the causes, course, and consequences of
the Civil War.
• b. Describe President Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union as seen in his second
inaugural address and the Gettysburg speech and in his use of emergency
powers, such as his decision to suspend habeas corpus.
• c. Describe the roles of Ulysses Grant, Robert E. Lee, “Stonewall” Jackson,
William T. Sherman, and Jefferson Davis.
• d. Explain the importance of Fort Sumter, Antietam, Vicksburg, Gettysburg, and
the Battle for Atlanta and the impact of geography on these battles.
• e. Describe the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
• f. Explain the importance of the growing economic disparity between the North
and the South through an examination of population, functioning railroads, and
industrial output.
• Abraham Lincoln – winner of the
election of 1860
• Representative from Illinois
• Ran unsuccessfully two times for the
US Senate
• Upon hearing the news of Lincoln’s
election, South Carolina secedes from
the Union
• Lincoln vows to preserve the Union at
any cost necessary.
• Lincoln was initially not concerned with
emancipation , but rather preventing
the further spread of slavery.
• The Confederate States of America
is formed in February 1861
• Jefferson Davis is elected President
of the CSA the same month
• Graduate from West Point Military
• Former US Senator from Mississippi
• Former US Secretary of War
• In April 1861, one of the first crises in Lincoln’s presidency occurred.
• Fort Sumter, located on an island in the harbor of Charleston, South
Carolina, was one of the few remaining federal forts in Confederate
• President Davis offered to purchase Fort Sumter and other Union
possession in Confederate territory, but Lincoln refused.
• Union troops at Fort Sumter soon found themselves in dire need of
• Lincoln knew that sending the supplies would anger the
Confederates but chose to proceed with his plan.
• Confederate leaders gave Lincoln an ultimatum: abandon the
fort voluntarily or face the possibility of armed, forced
• When Union forces failed to abandon Fort Sumter, the
Confederates began bombarding the island.
• Two days later, after federal troops abandoned Fort Sumter,
Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteer troops to stop “open
rebellion” of the Confederate states.
• Four other states seceded; the Civil War had officially begun.
• After the start of war, Lincoln began using emergency powers
never-before used by another president.
• He suspended the Constitutional writ of habeas corpus.
• Literally means “to have the body”.
• Under this writ, persons charged with a crime are guaranteed
the right to be brought before a judge and told of the crimes
against them.
• During the Civil War, Lincoln imprisoned thousands of
Confederate supporters in Union states without trial denying
them their basic civil liberties as outlined in the Bill of Rights.
• Why do you think Lincoln did this?
• Commander of the Army of Northern
Virginia who would become leader of
the entire Confederate forces.
• Formerly served in the United States
• Seen as one of the brightest and best in
the field of military expertise.
• The military expertise of Lee and his
fellow Confederate generals is seen as
one of the few (if only) advantages the
South had over Northern forces.
• Antietam – September 1862; Sharpsburg,
• First major battle on Northern soil
• Single bloodiest day in US history; over 26,000
troops killed, wounded or missing
• As Lee’s largely outnumbered forces retreated
South, Union forces chose not to follow.
• Some historians say the Union could have ended the
war after Antietam had they chosen to follow Lee’s
fleeting army.
The Dunker Church; Sharpsburg, Maryland (September 17, 1862)
• At Antietam Union forces successfully prevented a Southern invasion.
• Lincoln saw this “victory” as an opportunity to issue his
“Emancipation Proclamation” in September1862.
• The Proclamation “freed” only slaves in the Confederacy.
• Slaves in the border states still remained in bondage.
• Largely ignored by Confederates; Lincoln after all was not their
• It did however set a moral course for the war.
• No longer was the war just about maintaining the Union, but also
about ending slavery once and for all.
• After the war became a war against slavery, England and France
withdrew any potential military support of the Confederacy.
• "That on the first day of January, in the year of
our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixtythree, all persons held as slaves within any
State or designated part of a State, the people
whereof shall then be in rebellion against the
United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and
forever free.”
• Abraham Lincoln “The Emancipation Proclamation”, January 1863
• Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson – famous
Confederate general; second only to Lee
• Played an integral part in many Confederate victories
including the First Bull Run where he received his
• "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us
determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow
me". -Brig. Gen Barnett Elliott Bee
• However the Battle of Chancellorsville, VA in May of
1863, would be his last.
• Jackson is shot by “friendly fire” while returning to his
camp late one evening after a flanking expedition
• His left arm is amputated but he dies from
complications of pneumonia 8 days later
• His death is seen as a strategic setback and moral
defeat to the Confederacy.
• Early on, the Union had taken control of the strategic
port cities of Memphis and New Orleans along the
Mississippi River
• Summer 1863 – Vicksburg, Mississippi
• Union forces led by Ulysses S. Grant led a siege for
control of high ground over a bend in the Mississippi
• Whoever controlled the bend, controlled the flow of
traffic along the entire river itself.
• The siege lasted seven weeks, but resulted with the
Union’s successful capture of Vicksburg.
• The Union victory is important for two reasons:
• 1. It gives the Union full navigational control of
the Mississippi River from North to South
• 2. It divides the Confederacy in half; cuts off
supply routes to and from Arkansas, Louisiana
and Texas
• July 1863 – Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
• Led by Robert E. Lee, Gettysburg was seen as a final attempt
of the South to invade the North.
• Lee envisioned taking Philadelphia and then surrounding
Washington, D.C., potentially securing Union surrender.
• After three days of fighting, the Confederates retreat.
• The Confederate defeat at Gettysburg is seen as the war’s
major turning point
• Lee’s loss allows the Union forces to permanently regain control
of the war
• One historian noted about Gettysburg: “It was the greatest
battle ever to be fought in the western hemisphere”.
Nearly 8,000 Union and Confederate troops die in three days at Gettysburg.
• In remembrance of fallen Union soldiers, Lincoln
issued his famous “Gettysburg Address” in November
• His speech was given at a dedication of a cemetery
on the battlefields of Gettysburg.
• Considered on of the most important speeches in US
history as Lincoln still urged a preservation of the
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought
forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in
Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all
men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing
whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and
so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a
great battlefield of that war. We have come to
dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting
place for those who here gave their lives that that
nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper
that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate—we
cannot consecrate—we cannot hallow—this ground.
The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here,
have consecrated it, far above our poor power to
add or detract. The world will little note, nor long
remember what we say here, but it can never forget
what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be
dedicated here to the unfinished work which they
who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great
task remaining before us—that from these honored
dead we take increased devotion to that cause for
which they gave the last full measure of devotion—
that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not
have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall
have a new birth of freedom— and that government
of the people, by the people, for the people, shall
not perish from the earth.
Abraham Lincoln, “Gettysburg Address”, November 1863
• In Spring 1864, Lincoln promotes
Ulysses S. Grant to head of the Union
• Under Grant’s command, the Union
forces would spend the next year
gradually overwhelming Confederate
• Grant’s plan called for a siege of
Confederate supply lines in Atlanta
and a complete surrender of Lee’s
army in Virginia.
• General who served under Grant in
the Union Army
• Sherman faced a mountainous
campaign on his way to victory at the
Battle of Atlanta in September 1864
• From Atlanta, Sherman would begin
his infamous “March to Sea”
• Union troops burned all lands and
destroyed Confederate infrastructure
from Atlanta to Savannah.
• Sherman’s actions effectively ended
the South’s attempt at victory.
Sherman’s “neckties”
• In 1864, public opinion on the war was turning against Lincoln, his
reelection was deemed impossible by many.
• A Lincoln defeat at the polls could lead to an armistice with the
South, formally recognizing their existence.
• However Sherman’s “March to the Sea” secured a victory for
Lincoln in the 1864 election.
• His 2nd Inaugural Address, given in March 1865, was Lincoln’s
attempt at reconciling with an almost defeated South
• Lincoln wanted to bring all rebelling states back into the Union
and begin the process of forgiveness and healing.
• “With malice toward none; with charity for all; with
firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the
right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to
bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who
shall have borne the battle, and for his widow, and
his orphan -- to do all which may achieve and
cherish a just, and a lasting peace, among
ourselves, and with all nations.”
- Abraham Lincoln, “2nd Inaugural Address” March 1864
• April 1865 – Robert E. Lee surrenders to Ulysses S. Grant at
Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia.
• Over 600,000 Americans died as a result of the Civil War
• The Confederacy was disbanded and the South was left in
financial and physical ruin.
• April 14, 1865
• Four days after Lee’s
surrender, Abraham Lincoln
is killed by John Wilkes
Booth while attending a
play at Ford’s Theater in
Washington, D.C.
• His death left many to
wonder how our nation
would “bind up its wounds”
without its heroic leader.
Executions of conspirators in the plans to assassinate Lincoln and his cabinet.
• For each of the following individuals, write at least ONE
sentence explaining his contribution(s) to the course and/or
outcome of the Civil War:
• 1. Jefferson Davis
• 2. Abraham Lincoln
• 3. Robert E. Lee
• 4. Ulysses S. Grant
• 5. “Stonewall” Jackson
• 6. William T. Sherman