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American Civil War • The Civil War took place from 1861 through 1865. It was triggered by the secession of 11 Southern states from the United States: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina. • The North had about 21 million people, over 100,000 manufacturing plants, and greater than 70 percent of the railroads. In contrast, the South had about 9 million people (of whom 3.5 million were enslaved Africans), around 18,000 manufacturing plants, and less than 30% of the railroads. • During February of 1861, the seven Southern states that had seceded up to that time created a Confederate Constitution. Shortly after Lincoln’s inauguration, Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, was attacked by Confederate forces. This event marked the start of the war. Following the attack, four more states seceded. However, the slave states Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri did not secede. Later that year, the Union began a naval blockade of the Confederacy. • In 1862, Abraham Lincoln ordered that aggressive action be taken against the Confederacy. General McClellan, who was in charge of Union forces, failed to respond, however, and was replaced. • Despite their smaller numbers and shortages of ammunition and other supplies, the Confederate troops experienced many victories during the early years of the war. • The bloodiest day of the war occurred on September 17, 1862, at the Battle of Antietam. The war was not a decisive victory for the Union, but many scholars believe that the outcome persuaded Great Britain not to formally recognize the Confederacy. Five days after the battle, Lincoln issued his first Emancipation Proclamation, freeing enslaved Africans in Confederate territory. This order in effect committed the Union to ending slavery. • The three-day Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 was one of the most significant events of the war. About 160,000 soldiers took part in the battle, and over 50,000 died. The battle ended a Confederate invasion of Northern territory. • In November 1863, Union forces pushed Confederate troops away from Chattanooga, which later enabled General Sherman to march on Atlanta. The tide of success had turned by this point, and the Confederacy’s last decisive victory took place in June 1864 at Cold Harbor. • General Sherman made great inroads into the Southern territory in the second half of 1864, capturing Atlanta and Savannah and destroying virtually everything in his path. Transportation was almost halted in the South, and there were severe food shortages. • Soon after Lee’s evacuation of Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. Copyright © Holt McDougal/Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.