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Transcript
Islamic Golden Age 1
Writing & Research COMM 1312
Assignment 6: The Final Draft
Dr. Hala Guta
Islamic golden Age
Sara Al-Noaimi
201000238
Islamic Golden Age 2
Abstract:
I wanted to write about Islam for many reasons. First,
Islam has a great history, many developments happened back then. Second, I wanted
to inform people especially non Muslim about Islam, how it is a peaceful religion.
Third, to let Muslims a chance to remember their great Islamic history. I gathered
information for my research from books, articles and websites sources in order to
have a guaranteed information. After I did my research, I found that Islam had 3
important states. Amawia, Abbasid and Othmania. All of these states had their stamp
in the Islamic history where the golden age was in one of these states, which was
Abbasid.
Introduction:
In the past Islamic age, precisely in the Abbasid era. They were urge people to
learn and to write books. So they were telling them who write a book with useful
information, he will take gold on the weight of the book. That helped them to be
educated. Also, it shows how they were interested in teaching people how Islam help
them in their present, future and in the doomsday.
The reason I wanted to write about Islam is because I wanted to inform people
especially non Muslims about Islam and how it is not a religion of terror. Part of non
Muslims thinks that Muslims are terrorists and our religion is about killing non
Muslims. Which is absolutely wrong. I want them to know that our religion is about
making the world a better place to live in. that been cleared and explained in the
Holly Quran. Muslims set the basics of chemistry, math and medicine.etc. which is
now it is been taught in schools and universities all over the world.
Islamic Golden Age 3
On this research, I'm going to talk about Islamic golden age and how it spread
until Islam reached the golden age. Also, to let the non Muslims to be interested to
know more about Islam and to give the Muslims a chance to remember the great
Islam history and appreciate it more by doing our worships in the way we've been
told.
Methodology:
My research has been done by gathering information from many sources. I did a
library research, I used 2 books to write about Arab scientist and Islamic invasion.
I've used articles to write about the beginning of Islam and the spread of Islam. When
I wrote about the golden age, I've used articles and websites. I've carefully chose my
sources, because I wrote about a historical topic and my job was to gather and inform
readers an important subject which was Islam.
The beginning of Islam:
Islam began in the Arabian Peninsula, particularly from Mecca. Allah sent the
prophet to inform people about Islam. It all began when the prophet Muhammad
"peace be upon him" was forty years old. He was in the cave of Hira. He used to take
enough food to last there for several nights in a raw doing his worships and pray in
the manner of his ancestor, Ibrahim, The Hanifiyya. The prophet was alone in the
cave of Hira when a sudden angle appeared and said to him: Read! ' I cannot read' he
replied. Later, the messenger of Allah, when recounting what happened said: ' he
seized me and squeezed me as hard as I could bear and then let me go and said, '
Read! ' I said: ' I cannot read.' Then he squeezed me as hard as I could bear a second
time and let me go . again he said ' Read!' . ' I cannot read.' Then he squeezed me a
third time and let me go and said: " Read in the name of your lord'who created,
created man of blood – clot. Read, and your lord is the most generous, who taught by
Islamic Golden Age 4
the pen, taught man what he did know." This was the first day of his prophethood
and these were the first verses of the Qur'an to be revealed(Ahmed,2010)a
In the beginning of Islam, the prophet kept his mission secret for 3 years. He
first kept informing his closest friends and family about Islam. The first person who
accepted Islam was Khadija " may Allah be pleased with her ". Also, she was the first
who accepted Islam from women and the first who accepted Islam from men was
Abu Baker Alsdeq and from youn children was Ali Ibn Abi Talb. Then Allah
commanded him to display his religion openly. (Ahmed, 2010). When the Quraish,
which they are the prophet Muhammad's family, knew about Islam, they accused
the prophet of lying and craziness. The prophet continued calling people to Allah and
Islam. While he was doing his mission, Quraish started to torture Muslims. They
fought Islam, because Islam forbidden what they thought it was good for them. They
even attacked the prophet Muhammad " peace be upon him " They did everything to
him. They were throwing dirt on him while he was praying, they put thistle in front
of him when he was walking and they were throwing stones on him. These attacks
continued for many years. After years of torturing, the Messenger of Allah ordered his
companions and those Muslims who were with him in Mecca to leave for Madeenah.
This is called Hijra and it was a huge transformation for Islam (Ahmed,2010)b.
The spread of Islam:
After Islam spread in Mecca and Madina, the prophet sent messengers to the
nearby states to call them to Islam. The prophet " peace be upon him " had many
invasions in order to spread Islam. One of the most famous invasions was the invasion
of Bdr, also known as the great battle of Bdr. It happened when the prophet wanted
to object Quraish commercial convoy to weaken them materially. So, the prophet took
314 men and 70 camels with 2 horses. He did not want to fight them . when Abu
Islamic Golden Age 5
Sufyan knew that the prophet is coming for them, he changed his distance and
arranged an army with a 1000 men and 700 camels with 100 horses. When the
prophet knew that Abu sufayn wants to fight, he arranged his 314 men. Then, the two
armies went to Bdr and the battle began. The great battle ended up with a victory for
Muslims. This battle is one of the most important battle in the Islamic history, because
their enemies knew how strong the Muslims are now(Kfori, 1994,P 226-250). After
the prophet Muhammad's death, Abu Bkr Alsudeq " may Allah be pleased with him"
took the prophet's place. In his period, another great battle happened and it’s called
Al Qadisiya Battle. It’s one of the immortal battle in Islam. This battle opened for
Muslims the doors to Iraq and beyond Iraq, Persia . According to Sheikh Nassir Bin
Muhammad Al-Ahmed( They then went by the victory of Muslims with the fall of
Sassanid Fasttrd both military and political and the fall of Magian from the religious
aspects ideological).
Islam had 3 important states from many states. Umayya, The Abbasid and Othamina.
Umayya state was founded by Muawiya Bin Abi sufyan after he accepted Islam.
Muawiya taken from Damascus the capital of the caliphate. In his era, the state was
flourished. However, In Abdul Malik Bin Marwan era, the state was at its best.
Fairness was all around the state. Also, science flourished in his era and issued the
first Islamic currency. Othmania state was so powerful in the Islamic world. The state
lasted nearly 600 years. The Sultan Saleem the first was able to open Iraq, Egypt,
Palestine, The Levant, Arabian Peninsula and finally The Hijaz. He continued his
series of conquests. The state extends over most of what is today the Arab world as
well as it reach in central Asia and South-Eastern Europe ( Estnboli,2007).
Islamic Golden Age 6
The golden age:
The golden age was in the era of the Abbasid Sate. Science, medicine, education
and hospitals were developed in this era. Scientist used to share and exchange
thoughts and traveling all around the world to come up with new theories.
AlQurawin University was established, and it was the first university in the world
two centuries before Europe. After that, more universities were established and still
being taught in the current age. " Islamic medicine went through impressive
developments, which later influenced medical education and practice Europe."
(Faseb,2006). Muslims scientist were the first who made anesthesia for surgeries,
followed by establishing hospitals. A lot of development happened in that period in
almost every area. For example, mail, book industry, chemistry, math..etc.
(Faseb,2006).
These developments happened in the hands of Muslims scientist who led to the
golden age. In math, Abu AlHasan created the decimal system and he had a big hand
in creating the calculators. Alkhwarzmi is one of the most famous scientist in the
world because of his cleverness. He separated algebra and arithmetic. Renaissance
Europe in the Mathematical sciences was taken from him. The scientific discoveries
for Muslims in chemistry are paper industry, fabric, perfumes and the pharmaceutical
industry. Jabber Ibn Hayan was one of the most important scientist in this field. In
medicine, Ibn Sina discovered disease known today as Hookworm. Ibn AlNafees
wrote a book about anatomy. Abu AlQasem AlZahrawi was the first one who used
silk suture in the surgical operations. AlQayrawani wrote a book about kids
medicine. In physics, Ibn Al Haytham had an efforts in developing the science of
physiological optics and vision. Also, Arab scientist in physics were interested in
mechanics. They mad 50 mechanical machines. For example, water clock and
Islamic Golden Age 7
fountains. Finally, the phenomenon of the rainbow was explained clearly and
correctly by Kamal Al Farsi under the name of weather events ( Al Samarra'ei, 2009,
P 45- 49).
Conclusion:
In conclusion, I talked about the beginning of Islam and how it spread until Islam
reached the golden age. Mecca is the home of Islam where everything began, the
beginning of a new world. The prophet " peace be upon him " and the new Muslims
went through many difficulties in order to spread Islam. The golden age, which was
in the Abbasid State, had so many developments in that era in almost every major.
These developments happened from Muslims experiments and theories.
On my researched, I found that Islam had 3 important states. Amawia, Abbasid
and Othmania. Each and every one of these states have its stamps in Islamic history.
Amawia was the first state after the prophet's death and a huge conquests happened.
Othmaina was so powerful it lasted for nearly 600 years. Abbasid where the golden
age was. A massive transformation happened in that era. Scientist in that era had their
stamps in the world. There are universities in Europe has pictures of Muslims scientist
in their halls. Also, what Muslims scientist discovered is still being taught all around
the world.
This research made Muslims to remember the great Islamic history and to
appreciate it more. Also, the non Muslims now will know our great history and will
know that our religion has not been always about killing people and invasions, it is
about making peace all around the world by spreading Islam. Our religion have
prepared us to face our lives in every single thing can anyone imagine and even after
death. It gives us everything we need to be knowledgeable, from our birth until death
Islamic Golden Age 8
and after death. I hope that Muslims hold on tight in Islam and the non Muslims to
change their point of view of Islam.
Islamic Golden Age 9
References:
Al-Samarra'ei, R. (2009). Introduction To Islamic Culture. Jordan: Dar Al-Fath
lldrasat w Al-Nasher
Al-Mbarkfory, S. (1994). Al-Raheq Al-Makhtoom. Al-Dammam,KSA: Dar AlTHakhaer
Falagas, M. (2006). Arab Science In the Golden Age. The FASEB Journal, 25(12),
1581-1586
Ahmed. (2010). After Prophethood. Seerah Of Prophet Muhammad,30
Ahmed .(2010). The reaction Of Quraish. Seerah Of Prophet Muhammad, 23
Estnboli,T. (2007). Othmania Sate. Retrieved from:
www.majidah.maktoob.com/vb/majdah76243
Fahad, D. (2011). Islamic Golden Age. Retrieved from: www.alw1n.com/islamicgolden-age.html
Al-Ahmed, N. (2011). Al-Qadisiya Battle. Retrieved from: www.alahmad
.com/node/22
Islamicher Info. Dienst. (2011). Encyclopedia Of Muslims Scholars. Retrieved from:
www.iid-alraid.de/arabisch/scientific/scientific.html