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Transcript
30.2 Food and Nutrition
1. Food and Energy
A. Energy:
• Cells use chemical NRG in food
to make ATP (cell fuel)
• ATP powers cell activities
• Measure food NRG by burning:
1 calorie = heat needed to raise 1 gm H2O 1 ◦C
•
1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie or 1 dietary Calorie
B. Raw Materials: substances body needs (but can’t
manufacture) to build/repair body tissues
2. Nutrients
A. Water: most important
– Cells need for proper chemical function
– Dehydration: water loss greater than intake
• Drink 1 liter fluids each day
B. Carbohydrates:
– Main NRG source
– Simple/complex carbs converted to glucose
• Cells metabolize to ATP for cell work
– Glycogen: excess sugar stored in
liver or converted to fat
– Cellulose: plant fiber helps clean Dig. Sys
C. Fats/Lipids
• Help absorb fat-soluble vitamins
• In cell membranes, nerves, hormones
• Protect/insulate
• Energy storage
• Polyunsaturated (more than one double bond)
• Trans fats: manufactures add H; solid at room
temp; longer shelf life
• Linked to heart disease
D. Proteins:
• Raw materials for growth/repair of body structures
• Enzymes speed up body
chemical reactions
• Hormones: insulin regulates body sugar
• Hemoglobins carries O2 in RBC”S
E. Amino Acids: make up proteins
• 8 essential AA: needed in diet
F. Vitamins: need small doses; organic tools to build
body components
G. Minerals: inorganic nutrient molecules like Ca
(bone health) and Fe (blood health)
3. Nutrition and Balanced Diet
A. Balanced Diet: adequate nutrients and energy
molecules to maintain health weight
• Food labels: nutrition information
• Fat: 9 C/gram (C-H bonds: harder
to break releasing more energy)
• Carb/Protein: 4 C/gram
• % Daily Value/2000 cal. Diet
•
Age, gender, lifestyle affect need
B. Healthful Weight
• Obesity: influenced by inactivity; high calorie diet
• Physical activity: burns excess calories; strengthens
heart, bones, muscles
• Amer. Heart Association: Diet w/30% Fat Max
• 7% Saturated; 1% trans fats
•
Hi levels increase risk of heart disease & type II diabetes