Download 30.2 Food and Nutrition - Faribault Public Schools

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Body fat percentage wikipedia, lookup

Food choice wikipedia, lookup

Abdominal obesity wikipedia, lookup

Low-carbohydrate diet wikipedia, lookup

Obesity and the environment wikipedia, lookup

DASH diet wikipedia, lookup

Raw feeding wikipedia, lookup

Obesogen wikipedia, lookup

Calorie restriction wikipedia, lookup

Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease wikipedia, lookup

Diet-induced obesity model wikipedia, lookup

Childhood obesity in Australia wikipedia, lookup

Human nutrition wikipedia, lookup

Dieting wikipedia, lookup

Nutrition wikipedia, lookup

30.2 Food and Nutrition
1. Food and Energy
A. Energy:
• Cells use chemical NRG in food
to make ATP (cell fuel)
• ATP powers cell activities
• Measure food NRG by burning:
1 calorie = heat needed to raise 1 gm H2O 1 ◦C
1000 calories = 1 kilocalorie or 1 dietary Calorie
B. Raw Materials: substances body needs (but can’t
manufacture) to build/repair body tissues
2. Nutrients
A. Water: most important
– Cells need for proper chemical function
– Dehydration: water loss greater than intake
• Drink 1 liter fluids each day
B. Carbohydrates:
– Main NRG source
– Simple/complex carbs converted to glucose
• Cells metabolize to ATP for cell work
– Glycogen: excess sugar stored in
liver or converted to fat
– Cellulose: plant fiber helps clean Dig. Sys
C. Fats/Lipids
• Help absorb fat-soluble vitamins
• In cell membranes, nerves, hormones
• Protect/insulate
• Energy storage
• Polyunsaturated (more than one double bond)
• Trans fats: manufactures add H; solid at room
temp; longer shelf life
• Linked to heart disease
D. Proteins:
• Raw materials for growth/repair of body structures
• Enzymes speed up body
chemical reactions
• Hormones: insulin regulates body sugar
• Hemoglobins carries O2 in RBC”S
E. Amino Acids: make up proteins
• 8 essential AA: needed in diet
F. Vitamins: need small doses; organic tools to build
body components
G. Minerals: inorganic nutrient molecules like Ca
(bone health) and Fe (blood health)
3. Nutrition and Balanced Diet
A. Balanced Diet: adequate nutrients and energy
molecules to maintain health weight
• Food labels: nutrition information
• Fat: 9 C/gram (C-H bonds: harder
to break releasing more energy)
• Carb/Protein: 4 C/gram
• % Daily Value/2000 cal. Diet
Age, gender, lifestyle affect need
B. Healthful Weight
• Obesity: influenced by inactivity; high calorie diet
• Physical activity: burns excess calories; strengthens
heart, bones, muscles
• Amer. Heart Association: Diet w/30% Fat Max
• 7% Saturated; 1% trans fats
Hi levels increase risk of heart disease & type II diabetes