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Why be ethical?
To achieve happiness, not only for yourself
but for the community.
Ethics aims to discover what is good for us
as human beings, what permits us to
reach our full potential.
What is the Good ?
The Good is defined as that to which all
things aim.
 For Aristotle, the Good is happiness.
 Happiness is an enduring state of
someone who does well the tasks that are
typical of a human being.
How does one achieve
Live well and do well.
The highest form of happiness is based
on rational behavior.
How do we know the good
The good person is one whose actions as a
rule are solidly based on excellent
A good person would use reason to
control desire and would be moderate in
all things in an attempt to aim towards the
good or happiness for oneself and the
How do we know if we are
applying Aristotle’s ethics?
If the result is happiness for all involved
then we have applied Aristotle’s
teleological ethics.
Why be ethical?
It is our duty. We should be ethical.
 It is a matter of living out our inner
principles or maxims.
 To do this we must be autonomous and
free to be able to do our duty.
 Achieving the supreme good cannot be
attained in this life.
What is the Good?
The Good is the aim of a moral life. It
requires us to act according to our duty.
How does one achieve the
We can only achieve the Good with the
grace of God and through autonomy or
 An ethical maxim is one on which every
rational person would necessarily act if
reason were fully in charge of his or
actions Principles tell us how we ought to
act if reason were fully in charge of his or
her actions.
How do we know the good
An act is moral if it is motivated by duty
and we act in a way that I would want
everyone else to act and if I do not treat
humanity (self or others) as a means to an
 A good person does not act for personal
benefit but acts on principles that are
made universal.
How do we know if we are
applying Kant’s ethics?
If the motive for the action is duty,
(following should or ought.)
Why be ethical?
• We are ethical as a response to
face of the Other.
• The Other has traces of the
Good or God.
What is the Good?
• Levinas is more concerned
with Where is the Good?.
The Search for the Good
ends in the Other.
How does one achieve the Good?
• The face of the Other promotes my
freedom by arousing my goodness.
• Goodness translates into
responsibility for the Other.
How do we know the good person?
• The good person responds to the
Other and is responsible for the
How do we know if we are
applying Kant’s ethics?
• If both our intention and action
responds to the Other