Download Ethics

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Morality throughout the Life Span wikipedia , lookup

Utilitarianism wikipedia , lookup

Morality wikipedia , lookup

Moral responsibility wikipedia , lookup

Morality and religion wikipedia , lookup

Sexual ethics wikipedia , lookup

Informed consent wikipedia , lookup

Primary care ethics wikipedia , lookup

Jewish ethics wikipedia , lookup

Arthur Schafer wikipedia , lookup

Compliance and ethics program wikipedia , lookup

Ethical intuitionism wikipedia , lookup

Kantian ethics wikipedia , lookup

Secular morality wikipedia , lookup

Critique of Practical Reason wikipedia , lookup

Organizational technoethics wikipedia , lookup

Business ethics wikipedia , lookup

Emotivism wikipedia , lookup

Ethics of artificial intelligence wikipedia , lookup

Thomas Hill Green wikipedia , lookup

Ethics wikipedia , lookup

Ethics in religion wikipedia , lookup

Consequentialism wikipedia , lookup

Seminar Two
1. Review of Work Due
2. Course Content
Review of Consequentialism
 Non-Consequentialism
 Medical Ethics
 Doctor-Patient Relationships
 Truth-telling and Informed Consent
 Behavior Control
 The Impact of New Technologies
Discussion Board
Two threads
1) Are there certain moral absolutes we all should
live by? Do emotions have a place in determining
what is ethical and what isn’t?
2) What is the best course of action when the
patient’s right to confidentiality potentially conflicts
with the well being of others?
Discussion Board: One thread
Research based posting. Abortion is a sensitive topic, so it is
important to research this issue from as many perspectives as possible.
You are required to research at least three websites.
Your posting should evaluate the websites you are researching, not
your own views on the topic.
Your task is to compare the arguments made in the various sources in
terms of quality and to see which theories are being used to support
the arguments being made.
Your task is to write a one paragraph to one page position paper
in which you argue for a particular position or stance. For
instance, if writing about abortion, you may want to argue that it
is never permissible, or alternatively, that it is justifiable under
certain circumstances.
You should choose a topic from unit three, bioethics.
Your paper should reference key theories and/or concepts we
have discussed thus far. For instance: duty-based reasoning,
consequentialism, virtue ethics, prima facie rights, etc.
Don’t forget to check your paper against the grading rubric!
Review of consequentialism
An action is good based on the consequences it produces.
Utilitarianism: actions that benefit the greatest number of
people are good.
Egoism: actions that benefit the actor are good.
Altruism: actions that benefit others are good.
Care ethics: actions that promote caring relations with
others and that preserve the well being of loved ones are
Intentions are not taken into consideration
Whether or not an action is good may depend
on luck. What does this mean in terms of
personal responsibility?
An act is good when it is in accord with one’s duty,
regardless of the consequences.
Act non-consequentialism: a view that states that
because no two situations are exactly the same, no
rules can be made about moral behavior. Each
situation must be approached in a unique way.
Intuitionism: An action is right if it is done in
accord with one’s own unique intuition about the
An act is good if it is done in accord with an
absolute rule.
Divine Command Ethics
Kant’s duty ethics
Reason alone can tell us right from wrong
The categorical imperative: act as if your rule for action
were a universal law.
Ethical rules must be universal and consistent.
Ethical rules should be “reversible.”
Respect for others: Never treat another person
merely as a means, but always as an end.
Humans are autonomous or “self-determining.”
To treat another as a means to an end is to
ignore this aspect of an individual.
An action has moral worth when it is done for
the sake of duty, not when it stems from an
Consequences are not considered.
What happens when duties conflict?
As a way to respond to criticisms of Kant’s
approach to ethics, the idea of a prima facie duty
was developed.
A prima facie duty is a duty that in general must
be obeyed, but can be overridden by particular
When prima facie duties conflict, we must act in
according to the highest duty.
Hippocratic Oath: Do no harm; do not disclose
private information
Doctor Patient relationship:
Three general approaches:
 Paternalism. “The Doctor Knows Best.”
 Radical Individualism. “It’s my body and I’ll do
what I want.”
 The Reciprocal View “Can’t we all just get along?”
Truth telling and informed Consent
 Do patients have the right to know the truth of
their condition?
 Is it in fact in my best interest to know everything
about my condition? Why or why not?
 If information would cause me harm, should it be
Informed Consent: Who has heard of the Tuskegee Experiment?
Confidentiality: To what degree should medical information be
considered private?
For instance, in 2007, Andrew Speaker, a 31 year old lawyer from
Atlanta boarded a transatlantic flight while suffering from a drug
resistant form of tuberculosis in order to be married. Should he
have been prevented from flying altogether, or does he have a
right to move about as he pleases? Do the other people on the
flight have a right to know about his health?
Is a quarantine unethical? Why or why not?
If a person has a sexually transmitted disease, should health care
officials inform the partner(s) of this individual?
Who had a disruptive classmate when growing
up at school? What were the effects of this
classmate on the learning process? How was
the problem resolved?
Is it appropriate to require the student to use behavior
modifying drugs in order to return to school?
A consequentialist would say…
A non-consequentialist would say…
Do we know is clearly appropriate and inappropriate behavior?
Who has seen the movie or read the book A Clockwork Orange?
Why are we concerned with behavior control? What
value does it conflict with? What values does it help
sustain? Is there a way to balance out these interests
when they conflict?
What kind of ethical guidelines should be established
concerning new technologies relating to genetics, stem
cell research, and organ transplantation?
As technologies change, our ethical codes likewise
need to adapt to these changes.
As organ and tissue transplants become more common,
what kind of regulations need to be developed? How
do I know where these body parts came from? As a
recipient, do I have the right to know the details of the
person’s life?