Responding to Love in Love
... • "Our Hearts are Restless Until They
Rest in You"
From the Confessions
Saint Augustine of Hippo
Of What Sort of Proof the Principle of Utility is Susceptible
... standard – What is its sanction? What are the motives to obey? Or,
what is the source of its obligation?’
External Sanctions: Reward and Punishment
‘The internal sanction of duty, whatever our standard of duty may be,
is one and the same – a feeling in our own mind; a pain, more or less
intense, att ...
Bajahlan Bajahlan Lujain Prof.Hammoned EH101 06/04/15 Can
... Money is a big word in our community and in every community since making money is
not an easy process at all and the way we live is based now on how much money do we make.
Relating that to the fact that money can buy almost every thing in the world and gives you
control and power, the question is 'C ...
... required to sustain a given country's lifestyle. A country with a large per capita ecological footprint uses more than its fair
share of resources, both by drawing resources from other countries, and also by causing permanent damage to the
planet which will impact future generations.
As such, the HP ...
Utilitarianism - Welcome to the UC Davis Philosophy
... • Some pleasures are so preferred that a
considerable amount of discomfort is tolerated for
• Those of the higher faculties are preferred in this
way by the competent, from their sense of dignity
... levels, then, other things equal, the optimal tax rate
should be proportional to the population density
around the target individual. This observation leads
to the rather surprising implication that the marginal tax rate should decrease with income for individuals in the highest segment of the incom ...
HAPPINESS ECONOMICS What is happiness economics?
... • “Why do national comparisons among countries and over time show an
association between income and happiness which is so much weaker than,
if not inconsistent with, that shown by within‐country comparisons?” –
Practice Quiz - General Ethics
... good human will see, and see well.
c) a good human will reason, and reason well.
d) a good human will always use the power of sight
for a good cause.
e) we can test a moral theory only by its unique
ARISTOTLE Why be ethical
... control desire and would be moderate in
all things in an attempt to aim towards the
good or happiness for oneself and the
... "For if we take Utilitarianism to prescribe, as the ultimate end of action,
happiness as a whole, and not any individual's happiness, unless considered as an
element of the whole, it would follow that, if the additional population enjoy on
the whole positive happiness, we ought to weigh the amount o ...
... Ch. 4 How happiness may be calculated
Bentham argued that we can measure pleasures and pains and add them up
on a single scale by a process he called the ‘felicific calculus’ (‘felicity’
means happiness). If a pleasure is more intense, will last longer, is more
certain to occur, will happen sooner r ...
Happy Planet Index final version
... snowdon, Chris. "Shiny happy people? The madness of the Happy Planet
Index." adamsmith 20 06 2012 , n. pag. Web. 22 May. 2013.
... The ‘classical’ utilitarianism of Bentham and J.S. Mill.
Principle strengths and weaknesses of utilitarianism.
The difference between act and rule utilitarianism.
Aristotle on Human Excellence
... Higher quality
pleasures (like using
good deeds, having
friends) are more
desirable and make
life more worth
living than mere
... conversation; thought; freedom; peace of mind
Happy Planet Index
... To measure well-being, we use data from a globally renowned survey that
asks respondents questions about how they feel their lives are going overall.
The question we use, known as the Cantril Self-Anchoring Scale or the
Ladder of Life, has been used in surveys since the 1960s, and its validity has
Statistics Users Forum November 2009 Geoff Mulgan, Director The
... • formal quantitative targets in strategic plans (US states,
UK government) – which helps to sharpen up policy,
strategy and accountability for results
• open coordination methods of the kinds used by the EU
• performance management methods used by higher tiers
of government on lower ones
• metrics ...
Happiness and public policy
... recent history of human welfare, and it ignores some of the key findings of modern
psychology. Indeed these two failings are intimately linked: it is because the theory
ignores psychology that it is unable to explain the facts.
The fact is that, despite massive increases in purchasing power, people ...
... Rule utilitarians such as Mill argue that some rules are necessary to
protect our security and welfare, rules such as the right to a fair trial, or
freedom of speech. We explore the difference between Bentham and Mill
in the central section of this book. Rather than focus on an individual
action, ru ...
... “However selfish man believes himself to be,
there is no doubt that there are some
elements in his nature which lead him to
concern himself about the fortune of others,
in such a way that their happiness is
necessary for him, although he obtains
nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing
it” (Ada ...
... • Many moral heroes (Ghandi, Jesus) considered bad under
2. Alternative claim: It is wrong to judge other cultures by the
standards of your own.
• Again asserts a universal principle
• What about a culture that believes in human sacrifice?
3. Ethical relativism does not provide much help ...
... find out, then it would be right to torture children. But other people finding
out isn’t what makes torturing children wrong.
This thought expresses two possible objections. First, we can point out that
the example shows that happiness (or satisfying people’s preferences) is not
always morally good. ...
Morality and Ethics (cont.)
... The good life
People are virtuous in order to cultivate their own soul and
achieve a higher happiness
Focus on motivations for actions, rather than consequences
The goal is self-realization: to be noble, honorable, decent
What kind of people do we want to be?
Do we want to be the kind of people who ...
Objectivism 101: Life and Happiness
... “Happiness is the successful state of life, suffering is
the warning signal of failure, of death. Just as the
pleasure-pain mechanism of man's body is an
automatic indicator of his body's welfare or injury, a
barometer of its basic alternative, life or death—so
the emotional mechanism of man's consc ...
The economics of happiness or happiness economics is the quantitative and theoretical study of happiness, positive and negative affect, well-being, quality of life, life satisfaction and related concepts, typically combining economics with other fields such as psychology and sociology. It typically treats such happiness-related measures, rather than wealth, income or profit, as something to be maximized. The field has grown substantially since the late 20th century, for example by the development of methods, surveys and indices to measure happiness and related concepts. Its findings have been described as a challenge to the economics profession.