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Transcript
Chapter 15
Learning About
Hindu Beliefs
Objectives:
To discover the origins of Hinduism in
ancient traditions and how these
beliefs affected life in ancient India
and today.
I can:
• Explain the relationship among Vedic
religion, Brahmanism, and Hinduism
• Outline the social structure of the caste
system
• Describe important beliefs in Hinduism and
discuss their influence on daily life
• Assess the impact of ancient beliefs and
practices on life in modern India
Vocabulary:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hinduism
Vedas
Sanskrit
Brahmanism
caste
dharma
Karma
reincarnation
pilgrimage
Academic Vocabulary
•
•
•
•
•
affect
specific
interpret
divine
cycle
Dharma:
• Law, obligation, duty
To follow one’s dharma:
• to perform one’s duties and so to live as
one should
What would your dharma be?
Dharma usually means “right
conduct or behavior”. But
remember that what is right
conduct for a king may well be
quite different from what is right
conduct for a farmer.
•Hinduism is a religion that developed
over time from ancient Indian traditions.
•Its followers have many beliefs, deities,
and practices that differ from place to
place.
Sacred text:
• Ramayana
• Tells about life in ancient India
• Offers models in dharma
Central Figure:
• Rama
• Lives by the rules of dharma
• Young boy = loyal son
• Adult= loving husband, responsible ruler
Key Hindu Beliefs:
Brahman
Deities
Karma
Samsara
Dharma
15.2
•Aryans brought the first
parts/elements of Hinduism to India
•All Hindus follow the basic beliefs
of Hinduism that are laid out in the
Vedas.
15.2 the Origins of Hinduism (Key Terms)
•Vedas – Early Hindu religion which included
sacred texts, hymns, and prayers
•Sanskrit – An ancient language of India… The
Vedas were written in Sanskrit.
•Brahman – A class of priests or religious scholars
that interpret the Vedas.
•Brahmanism – Vedas develop into Brahmanism after
the Brahman priest bring a standard way of
worshipping the Vedas.
15.3 The Caste System
•The way society was organized
•Way of life
•Four main social classes known
as varna
Brahmins
(priests)
Kshatriyas
(Rulers, warriors)
Vaishyas
(Herders, merchants)
Shudras
(servants, farmers, laborers)
Untouchables (out of caste/outcast)
•Born into a certain caste
•Could never be changed
•Could only marry in their
own caste
Turn & Talk
1. Can you identify
each caste
correctly?
2. What is each
caste’s
dharma?
3. What does the
middle picture
represent?
Beliefs about Brahman
•Atman = soul
•Circle = cycle of life, death, rebirth NOT
resurrection
Work of Brahman
Samsara:
•The cycle of birth, death and rebirth
Law of Karma:
•the good and evil done in a person’s
past life determines what happens to
one’s soul in the next life
•Determines a person’s caste
•As long as people are a part of samsara, =
people will know pain, suffering and death
•Reincarnation: when a person’s soul is reborn
into a new body after death
•Samsara ends when the soul escapes from
the cycle of rebirth.
• reunited with Brahma, the supreme force
of the universe
•Pilgrimages: a journey to a holy place
•People travel to sacred places like
the Ganges River
•Believe the difficulty of the journey
would cleanse them of their sins
•As Brahma (the Creator),
•Vishnu (the Preserver),
•Shiva (the Destroyer)
Together known as the Trimurti (3
forms)
http://www.iskcondesiretree.net/group/krishnaconsciousness/forum/topics/lord-brahma-part-3-1
Shiva (destroyer)
Vishnu
preserver
Swastika
The swastika is an ancient
symbol that has been found
worldwide, but it is especially
common in India. Its name
comes the Sanskrit word svasti
(sv = well; asti = is), meaning
good fortune, luck and wellbeing.
The swastika is most commonly
used as a charm to bring good
fortune (in which case the
arms are bent clockwise), but
it has a variety of religious
meanings as well.
http://www.religionfacts.com/hinduism/symbols/swastika.htm
What connections can you make from
what we have studied previously?
Hinduism