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European Exploration
A. Reasons:
1. Wanted direct trade route with Asia (wanted
2. improved technology that enable them to
a. caravel ships with cannons
b. more accurate maps
c. astrolabe to determine latitude
3. Gold, glory & God
• New piracy
B. The Portuguese
1. Prince Henry the Navigator: explore W. Africa
in hopes of finding gold & to spread
2. Bartholomeu Diaz: sail around tip of Africa,
Cape of Good Hope, & open sea route to
3. Vasco da Gama: Sail to India via Cape of
Good Hope = Portuguese dominate trade in
the Indian Ocean
II. Conquest in
the Americas
A. Spain in the “New World”
1. 1492: Columbus looks for “Indies”; finds
Caribbean, a.k.a. West Indies
2. Conquistadors look for gold in the Americas
& enslave native peoples
a. pan for gold
b. Forced conversion to Christianity
c. Diseases: smallpox, influenza, & measles which
kill many
d. The conquistadors:
i. Hernan Cortes (1519): Conquers
Aztec Empire, despite
Montezuma’s resistance, and
takes the capital, Tenochtitlan
(becomes Mexico City)
ii. Francisco Piazzaro (1532)
conquers Incan Empire in Peru
Aztecs and Incas
3. Reasons Spain conquered Central & South
a. superior military technology
b. internal divisions in Native American Empires
c. weak resistance to European diseases
d. natives gave up
BUT many indigenous people resisted by
maintaining their own culture
III. Dispute between Portugal &
A. Rival claims to colonies
1. Pope Alexander VI solves with the Line of
a. west of the line: Spain
b. east of the
line: Portugal
IV. Spanish & Portuguese colonies
in the Americas:
A. Spanish Empire
1. location: extended from California to Peru
2. authority:
a. viceroys represent the king in each province
b. Church authority expands with the empire
3. Economy:
a. Mercantilism
b. Sugar, gold, & silver are the main exports
c. Conquistadors get encomiendas
4. hero: Bartolome de las Casa:
a. Priest who wrote to the king about the abuses
in the encomienda system which prompted new
laws to ban the enslaving of Native Americans.
(slavery ends technically)
5. Outcomes:
a. Natives must work the land to pay off
large debts
b. begin to import & enslave Africans
i. Africans outnumber the Europeans
ii. many rebel, run away, or buy
V. Colonial Society & Culture
A. Social Hierarchy
1. Peninsulars: Spanish born. Held powerful
positions in the government & the Church
2. Creoles: American born descendents of
Spanish settlers. Owned most of the
plantations, ranches, & mines
3a. Mestizos: People of native American &
European descent.
3b. Mulattoes: People of African & European
4. Native American & African mix
B. Life in the City
1. Mexico City was
the largest Spanish
speaking city in the
2. Universities were
established for upper
class males. Women
could only get an
education if they
joined the convent.
VI. Other colonies
A. Portuguese in Brazil
1. Had large plantations on which natives
and African slaves were forced to work
B. France in Canada: from Quebec to the
Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico
1. Samuel Champlain built the first permanent
French settlement in Quebec.
2. Fishing & fur trading thrive
C. The 13 English Colonies
D. Impacts of Colonization on Native
1. many die of war & disease
2. European settlers adopt Indian crops
(corn, beans, & squash)
3. Many places are named after Native
Americans today
VII. Slavery
A. Atlantic Slave Trade (slavery existed since
ancient times)
1. Fill Spain’s need for labor in Americas
since many natives died
2. From 1500s to the late 1800s over 10
million Africans were shipped to
Americas to use as slaves on
plantations (most used in Caribbean)
3. Many were captured & sold to European
slave traders by other Africans for gold, guns,
& rum
B. Triangular Trade
1. finished goods transported from Europe to the West
Coast of Africa
2. Slaves transported from west coast of Africa to the
3. goods produced on the plantation were sent to
Europe for sale in markets (tobacco, sugar, coffee,
4. The route that slave ships took was called the Middle
5. Slaves suffered horrible conditions
a. very little food, fresh water, exercise during the passage
b. approximately 20% die along the way
c. worked in mines, fields, or as servants
6. some slaves would resist
C. Battles for Power in South Africa
1. 1652: Dutch establish Cape Town. Dutch farmers
known as Boers
2. Batu speaking people already live in area
3. Zulu people conquering others in Africa and
incorporating them into the Zulu nation
4. 1700s Cape Town becomes British and Boers
become unhappy with British rule. Dutch move
north & contact Zulus
5. 1815: Boers v. Zulus. Boers win due to superior
VIII. Columbia Exchange: Global Trade that began with & is
named after Columbus. Plants, animals, people &
diseases were exchanged.
A. Effects of the exchange:
1.Inflation occurred in Europe due to the
increased money supply & high demand for
2. Growth of capitalism & joint stock ventures
3. Growth of mercantilism: Policy of colonial
powers selling more goods than it buys from
other countries
4. Tariffs protect markets in mother country
(taxes on imports)