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Age of Exploration Notes During the age of exploration explorers from all over the world explored and conquered new lands. Slave trade: The Portuguese traded with Africans for slaves, gold, and other items. Slaves in Africa were at first prisoners of war then Africans began to be kidnapped once explorers needed them for labor in the Americas. Columbian Exchange: The exchange of slaves, goods, plants, animals and diseases between the eastern and western hemispheres. Negative Effects: Transfer of germs (smallpox, measles and the flu) Diseases killed more than 20 million Native Americans Positive Effects: many plants and animals were brought to the Americas and Europe Two top countries of exploration: Spain Portugal Treaty of Tordesillas (1494): created by Pope Alexander VI stopped both of the countries from claiming the same lands by drawing an imaginary line from north to south through the Atlantic Ocean. Spain received the right to claim all lands west of the line (most of the Americas) Portugal received all new lands east of the line (lands in Asia and Africa) Exploration of the Spanish Conquistadors and Portuguese Explorers: Christopher Columbus Established Spain’s first settlements on the Caribbean islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. He was mainly looking for Gold. Columbus did not find much gold so he turned the land into sugar plantations He turned the natives in the Americas into slaves Priests came with Columbus and harshly converted the natives to Catholic Hernando Cortes led an expedition that went to Cuba all of the way to Mexico Conquered Aztec Empire (modern day Mexico) He found gold and silver which made Spain wealthy His men also converted many natives to Catholics Francisco Pizarro He conquered the Inca Empire (Peru) and the city of Lima He made Spain wealthy too because he found gold and silver Amergio Vespucci The Americas were named after him He discovered new plants and animals in North America by which he concluded that Columbus did not discover India or the Northwest Passage. Ponce de Leon Determined to find the Fountain of Youth Landed in St. Augustine, Florida in 1513 Found Florida for Spain and named it Florida after the Spanish saying “Feast of Flowers” Later settled in Dominican Republic and found gold Named the island Puerto Rico and claimed it for Spain Bartolomeu Dias Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Southern tip of Africa. He actually was able to see the Indian Ocean English, Italy, and France Explorers Seeking a northwest passage Europe and France refused to follow the Treaty of Tordesillas English and French were determined to find a northwest passage in the seas to lead them in to the Pacific Ocean to China and India John Cabot Italian navigator who was the first to attempt to sail the northwest but founded Newfoundland in Canada instead. Giovanni da Verrazano French explorer who set out to find a route to Asia but discovered the coast of NC (Cape Fear) instead. He paved the way to France’s claim to the new world by sailing North He discovered the Chesapeake, Delaware, Rhode Island and Maine Unfortunately, he thought he was in Asia.