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European Exploration, The Columbian Exchange and the Slave Trade
Motives for European Exploration
a. The Crusades resulted in…
i. Spain example =>
b. The Renaissance, especially ____________________, led to a great …
c. The Reformation resulted in ...
d. Monarchs seeking . . .
e. Fame, fortune, and ___________________ for the explorers!
New Naval Technologies
a. Astrolabe =>
b. Mariner’s Compass =>
c. Sextant =>
d. Better maps =>
e. Caravel =>
f. Advanced firearms
i. Wheel locks =>
ii. Cannon =>
Portuguese Explorers
a. Prince Henry, “the Navigator”
i. Established . . .
ii. Trained sailors, captains in . . .
iii. Encouraged, sponsored ...
b. Portuguese Exploration in Africa and Asia
i. 1460s-80s: Explored the _______________ _______________ of _________________
ii. Bartolomeo Diaz (1487)
1. Rounded the Cape of Good Hope ( __________________________________)
2. But didn’t …
iii. Vasco de Gama (1498)
1. First European to sail to _____________________
2. Route =>
Spain and the “West Indies”
a. Goal was to find . . .
i. Why? =>
b. Christofo Colon (_______________________________) (1451-1506)
i. Early life =>
ii. Looked for sponsors for his voyages
1. Approached leaders of …
2. What had to end, first, in Spain? =>
3. Where did he discover? =>
iii. He died, convinced that . . .
c. Ferdinand Magellan: first European to ______________________________ the globe
d. Other nations’ Atlantic exploration
i. England (John Cabot - ___________________ ) =>
ii. Italy (Amerigo Vespucci) =>
Spanish Conquests of the Americas
a. Fernando Cortez vs. Montezuma II
i. Aztec myths =>
ii. Spanish allied with . . .
iii. Invite Montezuma to meeting, then …
iv. Without a ruler, Aztec Empire ____________________________
b. Francisco Pizarro v. Atahualpa (Incans)
i. Three Expeditions (
ii. Took advantage of …
iii. Captured _____________________, ransomed him for …
iv. ______________________ killed most of the Incans
Cycle of Conquest and Colonization & Mercantilism
a. Cycle of Conquest
i. Explorers…
ii. Conquistadores / military forces …
iii. Missionaries …
iv. Permanent settlers …
v. Establishment of an official _____________________ __________________________
b. Mercantilism
i. Economic policy that viewed prosperity as …
ii. Measured in …
iii. Neighboring country example =>
iv. Best way to accumulate wealth? =>
v. Positive balance of trade idea
1. Get raw materials from ________________________
2. Sell finished goods to _________________________
vi. Government policies = _________________________________
1. Tariffs =>
2. Colonies free? =>
The “Columbian Exchange”
a. One of the most significant events . . .
b. Exchange of …
c. Europe (“Old World”) got …
i. Examples of fruits =>
ii. Examples of vegetables =>
iii. Examples of diseases =>
d. America (“New World”) got …
i. Examples of fruits =>
ii. Examples of vegetables =>
iii. Examples of animals =>
iv. Examples of diseases =>
v. Why were the OW diseases so deadly?=>
e. The potato: the most important vegetable in history =>
The Triangle Trade and the “Middle Passage”
a. Slave trade consisted of _____________ parts
i. First, . . .
ii. Second, …
iii. Third, …
b. Second leg of journey called “_____________________ ________________________”
The Slave Trade
a. The slave trade existed in Africa before . . .
i. African vs. ___________________
ii. Muslims vs. ___________________
b. In New World, Portuguese replaced ______________________ slaves with _______________
i. Sugar cane =>
ii. First boatload of African slaves . . .
c. Between 1500-1800s, over ____________________ Africans were taken, as slaves
d. Where did the slaves go?
i. Most slaves went to _________________
ii. _________________ went to the West Indies (Caribbean islands)
iii. ________________ went to British North America
e. Slave ships =>
i. Coffin position =>
ii. Africans who died during Middle Passage …
Competition in the Colonies
a. Asia / India
i. Portugal lacked the ___________________________ and __________________ to dominate
trade in …
ii. Spain conquered ____________________________
iii. First English expedition to India in ___________
1. English arrived in NW India in _____________
2. Dutch arrived in India in ______________
b. New World
i. North America =>
ii. Central / South America =>
Impact of European Expansion
a. Native populations ravaged by disease =>
b. Influx of gold and silver into Europe created …
c. New products introduced across the continents =>
d. Deepened rivalries between …