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LOOKING INSIDE CELLS
pages 60-67
RECALL: All living things are made
up of cells.
• There are two MAJOR types of cells
– Prokaryotes – cells that lack a nucleus ex.
Bacteria
– Eukaryotes – cells with a nucleus ex. plant
and animal cells
• There are two types of
EUKARYOTIC CELLS
– PLANT and ANIMAL
Structure of a Plant Cell
• Shape – more
rectangular;
rigid;
(strong/tough)
because the
cell wall is made
up of cellulose
fibers.
Structure of an Animal Cell
• Shape – more
round; but they
come in many
different
shapes.
Brain cell
Female egg cell
Blood cell
Liver cell
Differences between Plant and
Animal Cells
• Plant cells have a cell
wall which surrounds
their cell membrane.
• Animal cells do not have
a cell wall but they do
have a cell membrane.
Cell Membrane
Cell Wall
Differences between Plant and
Animal Cells
• Plant cells have
chloroplasts, animal
cells don’t.
– Structure – large,
green
– Function – trap
energy from sunlight
and use it to produce
food for the cell
• Plant cells have a
larger vacuole.
Differences between Animal
and Plant cells
• Animal cells
contain lysosomes.
– Function – break
down larger food
particles into
smaller ones.
• Animal cells usually
have more
mitochondria.
Lysosomes shown
below in yellow.
CELL ORGANELLES
• Organelles: tiny cell structures that
carry out specific functions in the
cell
TYPES OF ORGANELLES
• CELL MEMBRANE
– Structure – plant cell: within the cell wall
animal cell: outside boundry
– Function – controls which substances go in and
out of the cell; substances travel through pores
(holes)
– “selectively permeable”
• Nucleus – control center of the cell
– Function – controls all cell activities
– Structure – oval structure in the center of the cell
• Three parts to the nucleus
– Nuclear membrane – surrounds the nucleus
– Chromatin – contains genetic material
– Nucleolus – inside the nucleus, where
ribosomes are made
• Cytoplasm
– Structure – gel-like fluid;
constantly moving
– Function – contains all cell
organelles
• Mitochondria – the “Powerhouse”
- Structure – rod-shaped
- Function – provide most of the energy
cells need to carry out its functions
• Ribosome – the “Protein
FACTORIES”
– Structure – small grain-like bodies
– Function – produce proteins
– Made in the nucleolus
• Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) – the
protein TRANSPORTER
– Structure – maze of passageways
• Smooth ER – no ribosomes
• Rough ER – ribosomes
– Function – carry proteins and other
materials from one part of the cell
to another.
• Golgi Bodies – the “protein MAILROOM”
– Structure – flattened sacs and tubes
– Function – receive proteins, package them for the job
they need to do and deliver them to other parts of the
cell
• Vacuoles – “Storage House”
– Structure – water-filled sacs
– Function – store food, water, and other materials
Let’s Review ALL the cell parts…
PROKARYOTIC CELLS
• BACTERIA CELLS
– Differences between Prokaryotic
and Eukaryotic
• Size – bacteria are MUCH smaller
• No nucleus – genetic material found
in the cytoplasm
• No organelles except for ribosomes
– Similarities
• Has a cell wall
• Has a cell membrane