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Transcript
Ch. 11: The Ancient Greeks
Lesson 1: The Early Greeks
What were some of the forces that
influenced the rise of civilization in
ancient Greece?
Geography
Early Civilizations
Rise of City-States
Geography
Centered around the
Aegean Sea
Mountains, bays, and
inlets divided Greece
into many small
isolated regions which
formed closely knit
communities (citystates)
Sea became the link
to other peoples,
products, and ideas.
Farming in Ancient Greece
Climate was similar to southern
California
Crops were raised all year round
Crops
Olives
Grapes
Wheat
Barley
Early Civilizations
The roots of Greek civilization come from
other cultures
Minoan Civilization found on the island of Crete
Mycenaean Civilization found on the mainland of
Greece
Minoan Civilization
Accomplishments:
Developed a system of
writing
Created artwork
• Carved statuettes, pottery,
metal bowls, jewelry, &
weaving
Great sailors
Builders
Mycenaean Civilization
Largest City: Mycenae
Accomplishments:
Large fleet of ships
Established colonies
Adopted the Minoan style of building and
writing
About 1450bc, conquered the Minoans
The Dark Age
Around 1100bc, Mycenaean culture
began to decline
From 1100bc to 800bc…
Trade came to a standstill
Written language disappeared
People lived in isolated villages
Oral tradition kept the history alive.
After 800bc, writing came back
Rise of the City-States
Isolated villages began to develop into
cities, called city-states.
An independent, self-governing city and its
surrounding territories
With city growth…
trade increased
Fighting increased
due to lack of land
Athens: A City-State
How did democracy develop and work
in Athens?
Democracy
Citizenship
Economy
The Evolution of Democracy
Democracy: a form of government in
which the people share in the decision
making
Developed between the 700s and 400s
BC
Where we developed our form of
government
The Origins of Democracy
It took several centuries for democracy
to develop.
Monarchy: a system of government in
which a king rules a group of people
Oligarchy: a system of government in
which a few people rule over a larger
group
The Rule of Tyrants
Tyrant: a ruler who seizes power by
force, sharing it with no one
The Democracy of Athens
World’s first democracy
Council of 500 citizens
chosen at random every
year, proposed new laws
Assembly of all citizens
met every nine days to
vote on the laws
In court, citizens were
jurors
Other city-states had
democracy, but Athens
had the best
Citizenship in Athens
50
45
40
35
30
25
Percentage of Population
20
15
10
5
0
Adult Male Citizens-15%
Citizen's Wives and
Children-48%
Metics-12%
Slaves-25%
The Economy of Athens
Main economic activity: farming
Trading was down through barter, a system
of trade in which people exchange goods
but do not exchange money, until the 500s
BC
Silver coins were introduced around 570 BC
Trade with coins made Athens a rich citystate
Ancient Greek Culture
What religious beliefs and customs did
all Greeks share?
The Family of Greek Gods
Sanctuaries to the Gods
Greek Drama
The Family of Greek Gods
The Olympic Games honored Zeus.
All Greeks, no matter what city-state they
lived in, worshiped Zeus and his family of
gods.
Greek myths explained the roles
of the gods in creating the world
and causing natural events.
The Role of the Gods
The gods of Greek myths formed a family and
each member had a specific role with
particular duties and powers.
Worshiping the Gods
Greeks prayed to
specific gods for things
they wanted.
They thanked the gods
by making animal
sacrifices.
Sanctuaries: a sacred
place where people
honor gods
Sanctuaries to the Gods
Four major locations of sanctuaries:
Olympia (Zeus), Delphi (Apollo), Delos
(Apollo), and Eleusis (Demeter)
Each sacred site had its own unique
traditions that had been established
over hundreds of years.
Olympia & Delphi
Olympia
Location of the
Olympics
Delphi
Location of the
Oracle of Delphi
• Oracles were predictions (messages from the
gods)
Delos and Eleusis
Delos
Also had an oracle to Apollo
Held a sports competition to honor
Apollo every five years
Eleusis
Athenians made pilgrimages here each year to
offer prayers and sacrifices for an abundant
harvest
Religious Festivals
Greek Drama
Most plays told stories about Greek gods or
heroes.
Combined religion and history with
entertainment
Tragedies: a drama in which the hero is
brought to defeat by a flaw in his or her own
character
Comedies: a play that is funny and has a
happy ending
A Tale of Two City-States
How were the cultures of Athens and
Sparta similar? How were they
different?
Daily Life
Education
Persian War
Sparta and Athens
At 490 BC, Athens
and Sparta were the
largest city-states in
Greece.
Government of Sparta
Began as a monarchy
With two kings
Kings part of 30 member council
Members were elected by the citizens
Assembly
• Consists of all citizens who voted for or against laws
• Ephors: one of five elected officials who had
supervisory power over the Spartan kings
A democratic government never developed in
Sparta.
Remained an oligarchy
Economy of Sparta
Only male occupation was
as a soldier
Helots: a state slave in
ancient Sparta
The army became almost
the entire focus of the
economy because of the
number of slaves and fear
of a slave uprising.
Education in Sparta
Age 0-7
A government inspector decides whether the newborn baby is healthy; if not, the baby is taken to a
cave and left to die. Children remain in the home,
learning traditional discipline.
Age 7-18
Boys leave their homes and live in barracks with
other boys as they begin their education. Physical
education and military training are stressed. Girls
receive training in physical education. Girls often
marry at age 15.
Education in Sparta, cont.
Age 18-?
Man enter the army and continue military
training. At age 30, men complete their
military training and gain full citizenship.
Women take care of the home and raise
children.
Education in Athens
Age 0-7
Baby boys are more prized than girls. Some girls
are left at the gates of the city, where people
passing by might find them and raise them.
Children in wealthy families may begin their
education with a private tutor.
Age 7-18
Wealthy Athenian boys attend school, receiving
training in reading, writing, arithmetic, fine arts,
and athletics. Girls remain at home, learning crafts
and poetry from their mothers. Girls often marry at
15.
Education in Athens, cont.
Age 18-?
Men enter the army for two years. Then they
enter the army reserve force. Men manage
farms or estates and
participate in the
government. Women
take care of the home
and raise children.
Allies Against Persia
Athens and Sparta occasionally joined together to fit
against a common enemy, specifically the Persians
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