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Toward A New Heaven And A New Earth Free Response Question 2009 Analyze how Galileo, Descartes, and Newton altered traditional interpretations of nature and challenged traditional sources of knowledge. Traditional Interpretations and Traditional Sources of Knowledge Information credited to Stuart J. Robbins http://burro.cwru.edu/stu/advanced/pre20th_europe_galileo.html Cosmological views of the Later Middle Ages: Ancient Greeks : • Aristotle • Ptolemy Aristotle The spherical Earth is at the center of the universe, and all other heavenly bodies are attached to 56 concentric spheres which rotate around the Earth. Ptolemaic or Geocentric The Ptolemaic order of spheres from Earth outward is: Moon Mercury The Earth was in the center of the universe, from the simple Venus observation that half the stars were Sun above the horizon and half were Mars below the horizon at any time and Jupiter the assumption that the stars were Saturn all at some modest distance from Fixed Stars the center of the universe Sphere of Prime Mover The Church’s View • God created the universe • God’s greatest creation was earth. “God created mankind in his own image………” • Wouldn’t God want his greatest creation to take center stage in the universe? The “Common Sense View” • If the Earth were moving, then wouldn't we feel it, or feel a strong wind in the direction of movement? • Also, if the Earth really moved around the sun, then wouldn't we see the stars move? The Human Issue • The geocentric model puts humans in a special place at the center of everything. • It is human nature to want to feel special • Therefore, your religion offers as one of its fundamental beliefs that you are not only a special person, created personally by your divine being, but you live in a special place: At the center of everything. Enter Copernicus: The Polish astronomer Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) never liked the Earth-based view of the universe…… …….yet he did not publicly announce his views until he was old. This was due to the Church -anyone who opposed Church doctrine was branded a heretic, and that would destroy your reputation, put you in prison, sentence you to death, or all of the above. • Copernicus did not invent the idea of a heliocentric sun-centered - system, but he was the first modern person to advance it. • Copernicus' publication On the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres was not published until after he died in order for him to avoid being persecuted by the Church. • The book was published in Latin, so the general public was not able to read it, therefore there was not much ado regarding the publication. • It wasn't even until 73 years after it was published, 1616, that the Church consider it important enough to place on its Index of Prohibited Books. • Few learned people were willing to face the Church and risk death. However, it did put heliocentric views out in the restricted open, and it was useful to people such as Galileo to help revolutionize astronomy in Europe. Tycho Brahe December 14, 1546 October 24, 1601 Tycho Brahe Before the invention of the telescope, Tycho Brahe observed the positions of the planets, sun, and nearly 800 stars to an unprecedented accuracy. The first event was the solar eclipse of 1560. Tycho was amazed that astronomers were able to predict such events in advance. The second was a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn. It was the latter event that convinced Tycho that he should devote his life to studying the sky, for the published tables that predicted the event were grossly inaccurate, missing the actual conjunction by several days. Finally, he saw the supernova. He later wrote in his book On the New Star", "I noticed that a new and unusual star, surpassing all the other stars in brilliancy, was shining almost directly above my head. And since I had almost from boyhood known all the stars of the heavens perfectly ... it was quite evident to me that there had never before been any star at that place in the sky, even the smallest, to say nothing of a star so conspicuously bright as this." Church dogma of the times forbade any changes to the perfect celestial sphere, so anything that was new must be atmospheric phenomena. He firmly stated, "I conclude that this star has never previously been seen before our time, in any age since the beginning of the world." Tycho's heresy moved him to the position of the leading astronomer of the times. The Danish King, Frederick II, also took notice of Tycho's fame, and wished to keep him close to home to glorify the country. In 1576, Frederick II offered Tycho his own island and funding in the channel between present-day Denmark and Sweden, where Tycho could pursue his mapping goals. Tycho and his assistants transformed the 5 km (3 mile) long island, Ven, into Europe's center of astronomy. His observations were the best anyone had ever been able to make before. • He increased the accuracy of position measurements to over seven times more precise than they had been • Some of his most accurate observations were 30 times more accurate than those of previous astronomers. • Besides accuracy, though, Tycho was interested in the shear number of observations. • While previous astronomers were content with observations a few times in a planet's orbit, Tycho kept almost continuous records of positions. • It was through this that many orbital anomalies that had never been detected were found. With the death of Frederick II and the rise of Christian IV, Tycho lost his good standing in Denmark. In 1599, Tycho left Denmark and came under the grateful wing of Emperor Rudolf II of Prague. It was in Prague that Tycho developed a new model for the solar system. He did not completely believe the geocentric model, but he didn't completely disbelieve it, either. He proposed a system that kept the Earth at the center, but the other planets revolved around the sun in circles, which in turn orbited Earth in a circle. It was the "common sense" stability he felt in Earth and the absence of something observable prevented him from making the leap to a completely heliocentric model. Johannes Kepler Assistant to Tycho Kepler was given records of the planetary positions. Hundreds of pages of data took a very long time for Kepler to sort through. Yet Kepler's knack for mathematics - something his mentor did not posses - allowed Kepler to develop his three laws of planetary motion - laws that are still in wide use today. 1. Every planet follows an elliptical orbit around the sun. 2. An imaginary line from the center of the sun to the center of a planet sweeps out the same area in the same given time. 3. The square of a planet's period (year) is proportional to the cube of its distance from the sun • Kepler was a very religious man, who found a way to credit God for each and every discovery he would make, not to mention his own life and career paths. • Kepler had originally planned on becoming a priest, but was drawn into the world of science. • Furthermore, he was of the Lutheran faith, which caused him many problems throughout his life, since Germany was part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution 1806. • Always being subjected to persecution by the Catholics, Kepler had to relocate several times due to pressure from the Church, yet he would not convert. • Also, mathematicians were not in great demand at the time, and Kepler did not have very much money to support his family. • He lived in poverty, and died in poverty. The most famous of all Renaissance scientists, and he is often considered the founder of modern astronomy. Galileo heard of the refracting telescope, which was invented in Holland in the very early 1600s, and built a home-made model in 1609. Galileo Galilei With it, Galileo was able to see the four major moons of Jupiter Galileo drew detailed diagrams of Earth's moon, observing valleys and mountains and craters. He also looked at the sun and observed dark blemishes on its surface, which are now called sunspots. From the movement of these, he was able to determine that the sun has a rotation period of about one month. These observations of celestial bodies, published in a book called The Starry Messenger in 1610 Galileo now has the attention of the Catholic Church Besides the geocentric model of the universe, the Church held that celestial bodies, such as the sun and moon, were prefect - this is a view that probably has its foundation in the classical texts of the ancient Greeks. Galileo's observations of spots on the sun and varied terrain on the moon were in direct opposition to this doctrine. Besides these imperfections that he noted in the celestial globes, Galileo viewed the Jupiter system with its moons as a small model of our solar system, and he became convinced of the Copernican heliocentric model. Making his argument public, Galileo was ordered by the Church in 1616 to retract his claims that the Earth rotated around the sun. • However, Galileo did not, and in 1632 published the book Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. • In it, he presented two characters, one that argued for the Copernican model and the other who was a proponent of geocentricity. • Time and again in the book, the Copernican believer is shown to be well-founded in logic and observation. • Not only did the book present again this forbidden view, but it was also published in Italian which made it widely available to the general public. • Galileo was again brought before the Church, and he was ordered to retract his claims upon threat of torture. • He was then placed under house arrest in 1633 through the end of his life, nine years later on January 8, 1642. • His book, however, was brought to a press in Holland where it was published and referred to as Two New Sciences. • In 1992, the Catholic Church reconsidered the Inquisition's findings, and removed Galileo from any wrongdoings. Removing body parts from the corpse was an echo of a practice common with saints, whose digits, tongues and organs were revered by Catholics as relics with sacred powers. There is an irony in Galileo's having been subjected to the same treatment, since he was persecuted by the Catholic Church for advocating the theory that the earth circles the sun, rather than the other way around. The Inquisition forced him to recant and jailed him in 1634. Sir Isaac Newton • The founder of calculus • Combined Kepler and Galileo on motion • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687) known as Principia - showed how his principle of universal gravitation provided an explanation both of falling bodies on the earth and of the motions of planets, comets, and other bodies in the heavens. • Humans no longer center of the universe • Universal Laws of Gravity • Three Laws of Motion 1. Every object has uniform motion unless acted upon by a force. 2. The force on an object is equal to the object's mass times the resulting acceleration 3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. • • • • • World Machine – operates in time and space Connected to founding of Deism Promoted scientific experiment Density of earth is five times greater than matter Rejected Descartes' theory that world is made totally of matter.