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Renaissance and Reformation
Renaissance = “rebirth”
 Began in Italian City-States
 Revival of Commerce and Town Building
was more intense in Italy
 Feudalism had less of a grip on Italy
 Presence of antiquity was stronger in
Italy than elsewhere in Europe
Renaissance = “rebirth”
 Humanism a program of study based on the
“classics” = ancient Greece and Rome
 Petrarch – father of humanism
 Civic Humanism - use classical education for
the public’s good
 Revival of Ancient Latin and Greek allowed
ancient text to be translated
Heritage of Humanism
 Improved command of Latin
 Restored Greek language/learning
 Developed new ways to study ancient
 Used past to illustrate human behavior
and find moral examples.
 Reformed education
Renaissance Art
 Artist as individuals, not craftsmen
New Techniques - Painting
 Fresco – wet plaster
 Oil Painting
 Chiaroscuro – contrast light and dark to
create 3D images
 Single Point Perspective
Renaissance Art
 Classical Motifs (Greek and Rome)
- Columns, Domes
Renaissance Art
Late Renaissance
 Mannerism
- Distorted images and confusing themes
- Reflect growing religious and political
crises in Italy
Leonardo Da Vinci
 “Renaissance Man”
- Architect, sculptor, engineer, inventor,
painter scientist
 School Of Athens – links
renaissance with the
 Single point perspective
 David -Masterpiece
 Sistine Chapel
- Ceiling represents High Renaissance,
Altar Represents Late Renaissance style
Northern Renaissance
Northern Humanist
 Desiderius Erasmus
 Criticized the Church In Praise of Folly
 Emphasized inner faith as opposed to
outer worship
 Sir Thomas Moore
 Utopia critical of contemporary society
 All property should be held in common
Northern Renaissance
 Influenced by Italian Renaissance
 Albrecht Durer – woodcuts
 Geoffrefy Chaucer- Canterbury Tales
 William Shakespeare
Northern Renaissance
Printing Press
 Johannes Gutenberg
 Cheaper to produce books
 Increase in literacy
 New ideas spread faster
John Wycliffe
 Questioned wealth of church
 Miracle of transubstantiation
 Indulgences
 Urged followers to read and interpret
bible for themselves
 “Lollards”
Jan Hus
 Horrified by immorality of clergy
 Urged that who congregation should be
given the cup during communion
 Called before Council of Constance
 Burned at the stake as a heretic
 Followers staged a rebellion
Martin Luther
 Protested the selling of indulgences
 Posted 95 Theses
 Quickly spread via printing press
 Diet of Worms- banned him and his works from
 Questioned papal authority, sacraments,
monasticism, celibacy of clergy
 Had several children
Peace of Augsburg
 Legalized Lutheranism in areas ruled by
 Denied infant baptism
Ulrich Zwiligi
 Denied all of the sacraments
John Calvin
 Predestination of the soul
 No free will
English Reformation
 Henry VIII wanted a divorce
 Made head of Church of England
Counter Reformation
Council of Trent
 Educate clergy
 End selling of church offices
 Upheld traditional Catholic teachings
 Baroque Art - more intensely religious
than mannerist style