Objectives for nutrition: Describe the functions and purposes of the essential nutrients Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Objectives, continued: Describe the importance of a healthy diet Describe what needs to be in a healthy diet Describe the definition of an antioxidant and why it is important. Describe at least one disease that is affected by nutrition Describe the food pyramid Objectives continued: Describe two changes you can make to improve your diet. Describe what sugar does to your body. Describe the relationship between nutrition and stress. Describe two ways to improve dental health. The food pyramid (on page 54 there is also a chinese food pyramid) Nutrition and Health: We now have diseases of excess and imbalance, compared to years ago when we had diseases of deficiencies: scurvy and rickets. Coronary Heart Disease, stroke, and noninsulin dependent diabetes are connected to nutrition Cancer is connected to nutrition Continued: 30% of cancers are related to dietary factors Intake of fruits and vegetables can cut cancer risk in half. The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) were developed to prevent deficiency diseases and to guide the consumption of more than 50 nutrients Recommended diet: Complex carbohydrates, low in fats, high in fiber, high in protein, low in calories * Eliminate processed foods and sugars * Try incorporating soy products for meat * Eliminate saturated fats * Use monounsaturated fats: olive oil, canola, and peanut oil Essential Nutritients: Carbohydrates, Proteins and fats are macronutrients because they are required by the body in large amounts. Minerals and vitamins are micronutritients because they are required by the body in smaller amounts. Carbohydrates, Proteins and fats are energy nutrients because they provide energy. Calories: Is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a gram of water 1o C Calories, continued A gram of carbohydrates provides 4 calories A gram of protein provides 4 calories A gram of fat provides 9 calories 55%-60% of our calories, carbohydrates 25-30% from fat 15% from protein Antioxidant vitamins: are C, E, and carotenoids are helpful because they are protective and help neutralize the activity of free radicals Free radicals are naturally produced chemicals that arise from normal cell activity: such as when the body uses oxygen or is exposed to a toxin, tobacco smoke, etc. Free radicals, continued Free radicals damage cells and can lead to cancer, high cholesterol, cataracts and arthritis Free radicals contribute to about 50 diseases. Nutrition and Ethnicity: Infant mortality rates are 22 times higher for African-Americans and 12 times higher for Native Americans. Vietnamese women suffer from cervical cancer at nearly 5 times the rate of other women. Native Americans suffer from diabetes at nearly 3 times the average rate. Nutrition and ethnicity, continued African-Americans suffer 70% higher rates, and prevalence of diabetes among Latinos is nearly double. Racial and ethnic minorities make up 25% of our population, yet they account for 54% of all AIDS cases. What do you think are some of the reasons for these statistics? • • • Social reasons Economic reasons genetics Dining out and organic foods: Make sure to study page 259: What is good on the menu. Organic foods are pesticide and chemically free;can get them much cheaper at the farmer’s markets. Organic foods have more “chi”. Are you an emotional eater: Do questions on page 61 How to change old eating habits: Start small, one to two changes per day, do not try to change your whole diet. Chose from groups of foods you like. Sit down and appreciate your food, blessings, give thanks, enjoy how it looks, relax. Elimination: Getting the wastes and toxins out. Just as important to eating a healthy diet. Water and exercise assists us in proper elimination. Eating bran, whole wheat, fruits and vegetables helps to keep us regular In summary: Everything you eat affects your physical, emotional, spiritual and financial wellbeing. Try to eat at least 5 fruits and vegetables each day. Drink at least 6 glasses of water each day. Try to eat at least 3 proteins each day. Stay away from fast foods, and processed foods.