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Transcript
Chapter 8:
Nutrition
46
NUTRITION
Study of food and
the way the body
uses it to produce
energy and
build/repair body
tissue.
47
Kilocalorie
• Unit of fuel potential in food.
• aka kcal or calorie
• Average adult requires around
2000 calories per day
• Excess calories stored by the
body as fat
46
Essential Nutrients
• Nutrients the
body cannot
produce in
sufficient
quantity for its
needs
•proteins
•carbohydrates
•fats
•vitamins
•minerals
•water
48
Protein
• Important component of
muscle, bone, blood,
enzymes, cell membranes,
hormones
• requirement depends on
growth, illness, diet
48
Protein
• 10-15% of total calories
should come from
protein
• Has 4 calories per gram
Sources: meat, fish,
poultry, eggs, milk,
cheese, beans, peas,
nuts
49
Fats
• Most concentrated
source of energy
–has 9 calories per gram
• Help absorb fat-soluble
vitamins
• gives food taste
• satisfies hunger
• US diet needs to drop to 30%
total fat
• hidden in many processed foods
3 main types of fats from foods
•saturated
•monounsaturated
•polyunsaturated
No more than 10% of diet
should be saturated fat
(solid at room temp).
50
Fat Fact
Fats make up
34% of
average
American diet
(5 tablespoons per day)
CARBOHYDRATES
•carbon, hydrogen &
oxygen compound
•primary fuel source
CARBOHYDRATES
• provide 4 calories per
gram
• Supply energy to cells,
especially during highintensity exercise
51
•Simple carbohydrates
provide sweetness
•Complex
carbohydrates
provide starch and
most dietary fiber
51
• 55% of total calories
should come from
carbohydrates
• Americans need to
consume more
unrefined complex
carbohydrates
53
Minerals
• Minerals - inorganic
compounds
• help regulate body
functions
• 17 essential minerals
• macro (major) minerals--100
mg--calcium, phosphorus,
sodium, potassium...
• micro (trace) minerals--iron,
copper, zinc, selenium,
manganese...
Vitamins - organic substances
• required in very small amounts
to help chemical reactions
• absorbed into bloodstream
(better from natural sources)
• antioxidants help preserve
body’s healthy cells
• Water soluble (B, C,
folic acid)
• Fat soluble (A, D, E, K)
• toxicity reported with
mega doses
WATER
• regulates body temperature,
contributes to cell processes
and structure of the body
• Need 1 quart for each
1000 calories.
WATER
• Comes from food,
beverages and oxidation
• Pure form is best!
FIBER
• indigestible part of plants-soluble and insoluble
• current American diet needs to
double intake of fiber to 23-35
gm
DISEASE PREVENTION
•manage diabetes and high
blood cholesterol
•helps in weight control
• low in calories, take longer
to chew
• prevent conditions arising in
the intestinal tract
HIGH FIBER FOODS
Fruits
legumes
oats
cereals
grains
vegetables
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
•
•
•
•
•
•
sparingly: fats and oils
2-3 of milk yogurt cheese
2-3 of meat, poultry, beans. eggs
2-3 of fruits
3-5 of vegetables
6-11 servings bread, cereal pasta,
rice
54
Dietary Guidelines
•Eat a variety of foods
•Balance foods you eat
with physical activity
54
Dietary Guidelines
• Choose plenty of grain
products, vegetables, and
fruits
• Choose a diet low in fat,
saturated fat, and
cholesterol
54
Dietary Guidelines
• Be moderate in
consumption of sugars
• Choose a diet moderate in
salt and sodium
• Drink alcohol moderately,
if at all