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Transcript
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES
MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
April 2007
Produced by: Magnum Books Pvt Ltd, [email protected]
www.magnumbooks.org, +91-9811097054
NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
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National Disaster
Management Guidelines
Management of Earthquakes
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National Disaster
Management Guidelines
Management of Earthquakes
National Disaster Management Authority
Government of India
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Vision
Zero Tolerance
to
avoidable deaths due to earthquakes
Mission
To formulate Guidelines for the preparation of plans to reduce
earthquake risk, and minimise the impact, loss of lives and damage
to property caused by earthquakes
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Table of Contents
Vision and Mission
v
Table of Contents
vii
Foreword
xi
Acknowledgements
xiii
Abbreviations
xv
Glossary of Terms
xviii
List of Tables
xx
List of Figures
xx
Executive Summary
1
1
The Context
7
1.1.1
Earthquake Risk and Vulnerability in India
7
1.2.1
Traditional Housing Construction in Rural Areas
7
1.3.1
Critical Areas of Concern in Earthquake Management
8
1.4.1
Overview of Past Initiatives in India
10
1.5.1
A Recent Initiative in India
10
1.6.1
Earthquake Engineering Education
11
1.7.1
The Approach to Earthquake Management
11
1.8.1
The Framework for Earthquake Management
12
1.9.1
DM Plans
12
1.10.1
Institutional Mechanisms for Implementation
13
Guidelines—An Overview
14
2.1.1
Guidelines for Earthquake Management
14
2.2.1
Mainstreaming Earthquake Mitigation
14
2.3.1
The Six Pillars of Earthquake Management
14
2.4.1
Time Line for Implementation
14
Earthquake-Resistant Design
and Construction of New Structures
17
3.1.1
The Need for Making All New Constructions Earthquake-Resistant
17
3.2.1
Time-Frame and Milestones
17
2
3
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
3.3.1
Institutionalisation of Earthquake-Resistant Design and Construction
17
3.4.1
Compliance Review
18
3.4.2
Time-frame for Compliance of Seismic Safety of New Constructions
18
Seismic Strengthening and Retrofitting
of Lifeline and Priority Structures
19
4.1.1
Need for Seismic Strengthening of Existing Structures
19
4.2.1
Prioritisation of Structures
19
4.3.1
Structural Safety Audit of Critical Lifeline Structures
20
4.4.1
Public Awareness Campaigns
21
4.5.1
Seismic Strengthening and Retrofitting
21
4.6.1
Financial Allocations for Carrying out Selective Retrofitting
22
Regulation and Enforcement
24
5.1.1
Building Codes and Other Safety Codes
24
5.2.1
Techno-Legal Regime
25
5.3.1
Licensing and Certification of Professionals
25
5.4.1
Compliance Review
26
5.5.1
Techno-Financial Regime
27
5.6.1
Earthquake-Resistant Construction in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas
27
5.7.1
Schedule for Regulation and Enforcement
28
Awareness and Preparedness
29
6.1.1
Public Awareness
29
6.2.1
Awareness Drives for Specific Target Groups
29
6.3.1
Earthquake Preparedness
30
6.4.1
Medical Preparedness
30
6.5.1
Disaster Management Plans
31
6.6.1
Schedule for Awareness and Preparedness Activities
31
Capacity Development (including Education,
Training, R&D and Documentation)
33
7.1.1
Earthquake Education
33
7.2.1
Capacity Development
33
7.3.1
Training
34
7.4.1
Capacity Building of Professionals
35
7.5.1
R&D
35
4
5
6
7
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
7.6.1
Documentation
36
7.7.1
Schedule for Capacity Building (including Education,
Training, R&D, and Documentation)
37
Response
38
8.1.1
Earthquake Response
38
8.2.1
Emergency Search and Rescue
38
8.3.1
Emergency Relief
39
8.4.1
Incident Command System (ICS)
39
8.5.1
Community Based Disaster Response
39
8.6.1
Involvement of the Corporate Sector
39
8.7.1
Specialised Teams for Response
40
8.8.1
Improving Earthquake Response
40
8.9.1
Emergency Logistics
40
8.10.1
Emergency Medical Response
41
8.11.1
Schedule for Response Activities
41
Disaster Management Plans
43
9.1.1
DM Plans
43
9.2.1
Central Ministry and Department Plans
44
9.3.1
DM Plans of State Governments
44
9.4.1
Plans of Nodal Agencies
45
Contributions
46
8
9
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Vice Chairman
National Disaster Management Authority
Government of India
FOREWORD
Preparation of guidelines for various types of disasters forms an important part of the mandate of
the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). Almost 59 percent of the landmass of India is
prone to earthquakes and preparation in this regard constitutes an important part of our effort for better
management of disasters in the Country. For that reason, soon after being constituted, a series of
consultations were initiated by the NDMA, with various stakeholder groups to formulate Earthquake
Guidelines.
These consultations included representatives of various central ministries and departments, scientific
and technical institutions, academics, technocrats, architects and humanitarian organizations. The first
such meeting was held on 21 December 05. It reviewed the status of earthquake management efforts
thus far, identified gaps and set the framework for the approach. Thereafter, a Core Group was constituted
to prepare the guidelines. Their work, which extended over six months, was reviewed by an Extended
Group during a number of deliberations. The guidelines were finalized after two national workshops at
IIT Kanpur and IIT Mumbai and vetting by the ministries concerned.
As is evident, these guidelines are an outcome of the effort of over 300 leading experts in the
Country. These call for a participatory approach involving all stakeholder groups to strengthen the national
vision of moving towards a more proactive pre-disaster preparedness and mitigation-centric approach.
These contain all the details that are required by the planners and implementers and will help in the
preparation of plans by the central ministries and the states. A national level Earthquake Mitigation
Project will also be undertaken for all the earthquake prone districts to back the above effort. I am sure
that these guidelines will serve the purpose well.
I take this opportunity to express my deep appreciation of the commitment of various stakeholder
groups who extended their willing support and cooperation to our efforts. I am grateful to the members
of the Core Group, who put in endless hours of work. I also wish to convey my gratitude to the
members of the NDMA, Extended Group, and other experts whose contributions have resulted into the
preparation of these guidelines. And finally, I am also pleased to place on record my sincere appreciation
for Prof. N. Vinod Chandra Menon, Member, NDMA, who guided and coordinated the entire exercise.
New Delhi
30 April 2007
General NC Vij
PVSM, UYSM, AVSM (Retd)
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Member
National Disaster Management Authority
Government of India
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I am grateful to the members of the Core Group who contributed to the preparation of the National
Disaster Management Guidelines for the Management of Earthquakes. I must place on record my
sincere appreciation of the special efforts made by Prof. Ravi Sinha of IIT Mumbai and Prof. C.V.R.
Murty of IIT Kanpur as well as the valuable inputs and feedback from Dr. R.K. Bhandari, Chairman,
CDMM, Vellore and Prof. A.S. Arya, National Seismic Advisor, Government of India. I am also grateful
to the professionals in scientific and technical institutions, various Ministries of the Government of India,
Relief Commissioners from State Governments and other key stakeholders for their valuable insights
which have contributed immensely in shaping these Guidelines.
I am deeply indebted to Gen. N.C. Vij, PVSM, UYSM, AVSM (Retd), Vice Chairman, NDMA for
his valuable guidance and constructive criticism at various stages of the preparation of the Guidelines,
which substantially improved the focus and operationalisation strategy. I must also acknowledge my
gratitude to the distinguished Members of the NDMA for their valuable insights, guidance and feedback.
I am also happy to acknowledge the support extended by Ms. Rani Sahay, Mr. Vivek Sharma,
Mr. K. Vijaya Kumaran, Mr. Satish Chandra Sharma and Mr. M.P. Thomas Kutty during the various
workshops and their assistance in the preparation of these Guidelines.
The support of Mr. H.S. Brahma, Additional Secretary, NDMA and other senior officers of NDMA
for the conduct of the workshops is also gratefully acknowledged.
New Delhi
30 April 2007
N. Vinod Chandra Menon
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Abbreviations
The following abbreviations and acronyms used throughout this document are intended to mean the
following:
AERB
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board
AICTE
All India Council for Technical Education
ARMVs
Accident Relief Medical Vans
ATI
Administrative Training Institute
BAI
Builders Association of India
BIS
Bureau of Indian Standards
BMTPC
Building Materials & Technology Promotion Council
CBOs
Community Based Organisations
CBRI
Central Building Research Institute
CBSE
Central Board of Secondary Education
CESS
Centre for Earth Science Studies
CFI
Construction Federation of India
CIDC
Construction Industry Development Council
COA
Council of Architecture
CPWD
Central Public Works Department
CRRI
Central Road Research Institute
CSR
Corporate Social Responsibility
CWC
Central Water Commission
CWPRS
Central Water and Power Research Station
DAE
Department of Atomic Energy
DCR
Development Control Regulations
DDMA
District Disaster Management Authority
DM
Disaster Management
DMA
Disaster Management Authority
DOD
Department of Ocean Development
DRM
Disaster Risk Management
DST
Department of Science and Technology
DVA
Detailed Vulnerability Assessment
EOC
Emergency Operations Centre
EREC
Earthquake Risk Evaluation Centre
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ABBREVIATIONS
GIS
Geographic Information System
GOI
Government of India
GPS
Global Positioning System
GSI
Geological Survey of India
HSC
Hazard Safety Cells
HUDCO
Housing & Urban Development Corporation
ICS
Incident Command System
IDNDR
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-99)
IDRN
India Disaster Resource Network
IDRN
India Disaster Response Network
IE(I)
Institution of Engineers (India)
IIA
Indian Institute of Architects
IIG
Indian Institute of Geomagnetism
IISc
Indian Institute of Science
IIT
Indian Institute of Technology
IMD
India Meteorological Department
IRC
Indian Road Congress
ISET
Indian Society of Earthquake Technology
ITIs
Industrial Training Institutes
JNNURM
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission
MAH
Major Accident Hazard
MCI
Medical Council of India
MFRs
Medical First Responders
MHA
Ministry of Home Affairs
MHRD
Ministry of Human Resource Development
MoES
Ministry of Earth Sciences
MoR
Ministry of Railways
MoSRTH
Ministry of Shipping, Road Transport and Highways
MoUD
Ministry of Urban Development
NAC
National Academy of Construction
NCC
National Cadet Corps
NDMA
National Disaster Management Authority
NDRF
National Disaster Response Force
NEC
National Executive Committee
NGOs
Non-Governmental Organisations
NGRI
National Geophysical Research Institute
NICMAR
National Institute of Construction Management and Research
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ABBREVIATIONS
NIDM
National Institute of Disaster Management
NIT
National Institute of Technology
NITTTR
National Institute of Technical Teachers’ Training and Research
NPCBAERM
National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects in Earthquake Risk Management
NPCBEERM
National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management
NPEEE
National Programme on Earthquake Engineering Education
NSS
National Service Scheme
NYKS
Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan
PPP
Public Private Partnership
PRIs
Panchayati Raj Institutions
QIP
Quality Improvement Programme
QRMT
Quick Reaction Medical Team
R&D
Research and Development
RCC
Reinforced Cement Concrete
RDSO
Research Designs and Standards Organisation
RM
Risk Management
RVS
Rapid Visual Screening
SDMA
State Disaster Management Authority
SDRF
State Disaster Response Force
SEC
State Executive Committee
SEMCs
State Earthquake Management Committees
SERC
Structural Engineering Research Centre
SEZ
Special Economic Zone
SOI
Survey of India
SOP
Standard Operating Procedure
SRRs
Structural Response Recorders
SRTEE
School of Research and Training in Earthquake Engineering
UEVRP
Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Reduction Project
UGC
University Grants Commission
ULBs
Urban Local Bodies
UN
United Nations
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UT
Union Territory
WIHG
Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology
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Glossary of Terms
Disaster
A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising
from natural or man made causes, or by accident or negligence which
results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and
destruction of, property, or damage to, and degradation of, environment,
and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity
of the community of the affected area.
Disaster Management
A continuous and integrated process of planning, organising, coordinating
and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for
prevention of danger or threat of any disaster; mitigation or reduction of
risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences; capacity building;
preparedness to deal with any disaster; prompt response to any
threatening disaster situation or disaster; assessing the severity or
magnitude of effects of any disaster; evacuation, rescue and relief; and
rehabilitation and reconstruction.
Earthquake
An earthquake is a series of vibrations on the earth’s surface caused by
the generation of elastic (seismic) waves due to sudden rupture within
the earth during release of accumulated strain energy.
Elements at Risk
The population, properties, economic activities, including public services
etc. at risk in a given area.
Hazard
A threatening event or the probability of occurrence of a potentially
damaging phenomenon (e.g., an earthquake, a cyclonic storm or a large
flood) within a given time period and area.
High Risk Areas
Geographical areas which fall under seismic zones III, IV and V, which are
vulnerable to potential impact of earthquakes, landslides, rock falls or mudflows.
Local Authority
It includes panchayati raj institutions, municipalities, a district board,
cantonment board, town planning authority or Zilla Parishad or any other
body or authority, by whatever name called, for the time being invested
by law, for rendering essential services or, with the control & management
of civic services, within a specified local area.
Mitigation
Measures aimed at reducing the risk, impact or effects of a disaster or
threatening disaster situation.
Non Structural Measures Non-engineered measures to reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards
such as education, training, capacity development, public awareness,
communication etc.
Preparedness
The state of readiness to deal with a threatening disaster situation or
disaster and the effects thereof.
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GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Resilience
The capacity of a system to tolerate perturbation or disturbances without
collapsing into a qualitatively different state, to withstand shock and rebuild
when necessary.
Risk
The expected number of lives lost, persons injured, damage to property
and disruption of economic activity due to a particular natural phenomenon.
Risk Assessment
The determination of the nature and extent of risk by analysing potential
hazards and evaluating existing conditions of vulnerability that could pose
a potential threat or harm to people, property, livelihoods, and the environment.
Risk Management
The systematic process of using administrative decisions, organisation,
operational skills, and capacities to implement policies, strategies, and
coping capacity of the society and communities to lessen the impact of
hazards.
Rapid Visual Screening Rapid Visual Screening is a procedure requiring visual evaluation to assess
(RVS)
the vulnerability of buildings, by permitting vulnerability assessment based
on walk around of the building by a trained evaluator. The evaluation
procedure and system is compatible with GIS-based city database
and also permits use of the collected building information for a variety of
other planning and mitigation purposes.
Seismic Hazard
Seismic hazard in the context of engineering design is defined as the
predicted level of ground acceleration which would be exceeded with 10%
probability at the site under construction due to occurrence of earthquake
anywhere in the region, in the next 50 years.
Specific Risk
The expected degree of loss due to particular natural phenomenon.
Seismic Retrofitting
The structural modifications to upgrade the strength, ductility and energy
dissipating ability of seismically deficient or earthquake-damaged
structures.
Seismic Strengthening
The process of enhancing the strength of existing structures to make them
resistant to seismic activity, ground motion or soil failure due to earthquakes.
State Authority (SDMA)
The State Disaster Management Authority established under sub-section (l)
of the section 14 of DM Act, 2005 and includes the Disaster Management
Authority for the Union Territory constituted under that section.
State Government
The Department of the Government of the state having administrative control
of the Disaster Management and includes Administrator of the Union Territory
appointed by the President under article 239 of the Constitution.
Structural Measures
Any physical construction to reduce or avoid possible impacts of hazards,
which include engineering measures and construction of hazard-resistant
and protective structures and infrastructure.
Vulnerability
The degree of loss to a given element at risk or set of such elements
resulting from the occurrence of a natural phenomenon (or manmade) of a
given magnitude and expressed on a scale from 0 (no damage) to 1 (total loss).
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List of Tables
1
Important Milestones for the Implementation of the Guidelines
6
2
Geographic Areas in Seismic Zones
10
3
Milestones for the Implementation of the Guidelines
16
4
Schedule of Activities for Ensuring Seismic Safety of All New Constructions
18
5
GROUP A: List of Cities with the FIRST Level of Priority
22
6
Schedule of Activities for Seismic Retrofitting
23
7
Schedule of Activities for Techno-legal and Techno-financial Regimes
28
8
Schedule of Awareness and Preparedness Activities
32
9
Schedule of Activities for Capacity Development
37
10
Schedule of Activities for Strengthening Earthquake Response
42
List of Figures
1
The Seismic Zone Map of India as per the Indian Seismic Code, IS:1893 (Part 1) – 2002
2
The Six Pillars for Earthquake Management in India
9
15
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Executive Summary
Background
The Disaster Management Act, 2005 (DM Act,
2005) lays down institutional and coordination
mechanisms for effective disaster management
(DM) at the national, state, and district levels. As
mandated by this Act, the Government of India (GoI)
created a multi-tiered institutional system consisting
of the National Disaster Management Authority
(NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister, the State
Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs) by the
Chief Ministers and the District Disaster
Management Authorities (DDMAs) by the District
Collectors and co-chaired by elected representatives
of the local authorities of the respective districts.
These bodies have been set up to facilitate the
paradigm shift from the hitherto relief-centric
approach to a more proactive, holistic and integrated
approach of strengthening disaster preparedness,
mitigation and emergency response.
Soon after the NDMA was set up, a series of
consultations were initiated with various stakeholders
to facilitate the development of guidelines for
strengthening earthquake management. Senior
representatives from government departments and
agencies, academics, professionals, multilateral
and humanitarian agencies and corporate sector
representatives participated in these meetings.
These meetings acknowledged that several
initiatives taken up by government agencies in the
recent past have been significant and far-reaching,
but they also highlighted the need for a holistic and
integrated strategy. On the basis of these
deliberations, the NDMA has prepared these
Guidelines for the Management of Earthquakes,
(hereinafter referred to as the Guidelines), to assist
the ministries and departments of the GoI, state
governments and other agencies to prepare DM
plans.
Earthquake Risk in India
India’s high earthquake risk and vulnerability is
evident from the fact that about 59 per cent of
India’s land area could face moderate to severe
earthquakes. During the period 1990 to 2006, more
than 23,000 lives were lost due to 6 major
earthquakes in India, which also caused enormous
damage to property and public infrastructure. The
occurrence of several devastating earthquakes in
areas hitherto considered safe from earthquakes
indicates that the built environment in the country
is extremely fragile and our ability to prepare
ourselves and effectively respond to earthquakes
is inadequate. During the International Decade for
Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) observed by
the United Nations (UN) in the 1990s, India witnessed
several earthquakes like the Uttarkashi earthquake
of 1991, the Latur earthquake of 1993, the Jabalpur
earthquake of 1997, and the Chamoli earthquake of
1999. These were followed by the Bhuj earthquake
of 26 January 2001 and the Jammu & Kashmir
earthquake of 8 October 2005.
All these major earthquakes established that
the casualties were caused primarily due to the
collapse of buildings. However, similar high intensity
earthquakes in the United States, Japan, etc., do
not lead to such enormous loss of lives, as the
structures in these countries are built with structural
mitigation measures and earthquake-resistant
features. This emphasises the need for strict
compliance of town planning bye-laws and
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
earthquake-resistant building codes in India. These
Guidelines have been prepared, taking into account
an analysis of the critical gaps responsible for
accentuating the seismic risk and of factors that
would contribute towards seismic risk reduction,
to enable various stakeholder agencies to address
the critical areas for improving seismic safety in
India.
Overview
Long-term and sustained efforts are required
to address the problem of earthquake risk in India.
These Guidelines have been prepared to reduce
the impact of earthquakes in the short term and the
earthquake risk in the medium and long term. They
recognise the enormous challenge in improving
seismic safety because of the inadequate numbers
of trained and qualified civil engineers, structural
engineers, architects and masons proficient in
earthquake-resistant design and construction of
structures. They also acknowledge the need for
imparting training in earthquake-resistant design
and construction to faculty members in professional
colleges, for revising the curriculum in professional
courses, and for creating public awareness on
seismic risk reduction features in non-engineered
construction in earthquake-prone areas.
Guidelines for the Preparation of DM Plans
The National Executive Committee (NEC) will
prepare the National Disaster Management Plan
which will be approved by the NDMA. The Ministry
of Earth Sciences (MoES), as the nodal ministry
will prepare the Earthquake Management Plan
covering all aspects like earthquake preparedness,
mitigation, public awareness, capacity building,
training, education, Research and Development
(R&D), documentation, earthquake response,
rehabilitation and recovery. The Indian Meteorological
Department (IMD) will be the nodal agency for the
monitoring of seismic activity while the Bureau of
Indian Standards (BIS) will be the nodal agency for
preparing earthquake-resistant building codes and
other safety codes. All such key stakeholders,
including central ministries and departments and
state governments/SDMAs will develop detailed
DM plans, recognising the seismic risk in their
respective jurisdictions, based on these Guidelines.
Similarly, the SDMAs will lay down appropriate
Guidelines for the preparation of DM plans by Urban
Local Bodies (ULBs), Panchayati Raj Institutions
(PRIs) and district administration, keeping in view
the seismic risk considerations in their respective
areas. These Guidelines are drawn up in the context
of a rigorous Risk Management (RM) framework to
ensure the effectiveness of DM plans that are
developed by various agencies. Communities and
other stakeholders will ensure compliance to the
town planning bye-laws, earthquake-resistant
building codes and other safety regulations, as well
as their effective enforcement. The state
governments/SDMAs will be responsible for
reviewing and monitoring the implementation of the
DM plans.
Structure of the Guidelines
These Guidelines consist of three broad
sections: (a) the context and approach to the
management of earthquakes in India; (b) an outline
of the specific Guidelines; and (c) a broad overview
of the DM plans to be prepared by the central
ministries and departments, state governments,
other stakeholders and nodal agencies.
(a) The first section covers the following:
•
an overview of the earthquake risk and
vulnerability in India;
•
a brief review of the status of earthquake
management efforts;
•
an overview of the recent initiatives of the
government for ensuring earthquake risk
reduction;
•
an identification of the critical areas which
require special attention to ensure that the
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
overall strategy for the management of
earthquakes in India is holistic, integrated
and supportive to the development
aspirations of building a modern nation;
•
an outline of a rational RM framework to
institutionalise systems and processes to
make earthquake safety in India a
sustainable strategy;
•
an introduction to the six pillars of
earthquake management, with prescribed
time lines for the effective implementation
of the various activities; and
•
an overview of the issues which need to
be addressed to ensure the effective
implementation of the plans formulated
based on these Guidelines.
(b) The second section outlines each of the six
pillars for effective earthquake management in India.
(c) The third section provides an overview of the
DM plans to be prepared by the central ministries
and departments, state governments, other
stakeholders and nodal agencies.
Special attention needs to be given to ensure
the earthquake safety of non-engineered
construction in rural areas, as more than 61 per
cent of the buildings in rural areas are built with
mud and clay, stone, brick and/or concrete,
compared to 26.7 per cent of similar buildings in
urban areas. The large number of fatalities due to
earthquakes in rural areas during the period 1990
to 2006 also makes it imperative to pay special
attention to the earthquake safety of buildings being
constructed in these areas.
The Six Pillars of Earthquake
Management
These
Guidelines
envisage
the
institutionalisation of stakeholder initiatives, by
involving communities and other key stakeholders,
covering pre-disaster components of mitigation and
preparedness based on scientific and technical
principles, as well as on indigenous technical
knowledge and building techniques. They
simultaneously address the incorporation of multihazard resistant features in the reconstruction of
damaged buildings and outline the strategy for
strengthening the post-disaster components of
emergency response, rehabilitation and recovery.
Even though earthquake-resistant building
codes and town planning bye-laws and regulations
exist, these are not strictly enforced.
Given the high seismic risk and earthquake
vulnerability in India, these Guidelines require
all stakeholders to ensure that, hereafter, all new
structures are built in compliance of earthquakeresistant building codes and town planning byelaws. This will be taken up as a national resolve.
This is in recognition of the seriousness of the high
seismic risk in India and the increasing trends of
urbanisation and modernisation that demand the
construction of flyovers, multi-storied buildings,
super malls, techno parks, etc., in metropolitan
cities thereby multiplying the risks manifold.
The fragile built environment in India, especially
in moderate and high seismic risk zones, is a matter
of serious concern. It is neither practical nor
financially viable to implement strengthening and
retrofitting of all existing structures in moderate and
high seismic risk zones in India.
These Guidelines emphasise the need for
carrying out the structural safety audit of existing
lifeline structures and other critical structures in
earthquake-prone areas, and carrying out
selective seismic strengthening and retrofitting.
Apart from these two sets of initiatives which
are aimed at improving the seismic safety of the
built environment, these Guidelines also emphasise
the need for strengthening enforcement and
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
regulation, awareness and preparedness, capacity
development (including education, training, R&D,
and documentation) and earthquake response.
As mentioned earlier, these Guidelines have
been prepared through a series of consultations
with key stakeholder groups in New Delhi, Kanpur
and Mumbai. These consultations identified the
critical factors responsible for the high seismic risk
in India and prioritised six sets of critical
interventions, which have been presented in these
Guidelines as the six pillars of earthquake
management. They will help to:
1. Ensure the incorporation of earthquakeresistant design features for the
construction of new structures.
2. Facilitate selective strengthening and
seismic retrofitting of existing priority and
lifeline structures in earthquake-prone
areas.
3. Improve the compliance regime through
appropriate regulation and enforcement.
ones, as the stakeholders not only clearly articulate
the earthquake safety issues during this phase, but
also put in place institutions and processes for
moving towards systematic seismic risk reduction.
The activities to be carried out during Phase I include
the following:
•
Preparing DM plans; revising town planning
bye-laws and adopting model bye-laws;
disseminating earthquake-resistant building
codes, the National Building Code 2005 and
other safety codes.
•
Training trainers in professional and
technical institutions; training professionals
like engineers, architects, and masons in
earthquake-resistant construction.
•
Launching demonstration projects and
public awareness campaigns to disseminate earthquake-resistant techniques,
seismic safety and seismic risk reduction.
•
Enforcing and monitoring compliance of
earthquake-resistant building codes, town
planning bye-laws and other safety
regulations; establishing an appropriate
mechanism for compliance review of all
construction designs submitted to ULBs;
undertaking mandatory technical audit of
structural designs of major projects by the
respective competent authorities.
•
Developing an inventory of the existing built
environment; assessing its seismic risk
and vulnerability by carrying out a structural
safety audit of all critical lifeline structures.
•
Developing and undertaking seismic
strengthening and retrofitting standards for
existing critical lifeline structures, initially
as pilot projects and for other critical lifeline
structures in a phased manner.
•
Increasing the awareness of earthquake risk
and vulnerability and seismic risk reduction
measures to various stakeholders through
sensitisation workshops, seminars and
public awareness campaigns.
4. Improve the awareness and preparedness
of all stakeholders.
5. Introduce
appropriate
capacity
development interventions for effective
earthquake management (including
education,
training,
R&D,
and
documentation).
6. Strengthen the emergency response
capability in earthquake-prone areas.
Milestones for Implementing the
Guidelines
These Guidelines envisage two phases for
ensuring seismic safety. During Phase I, which is
scheduled to commence with immediate effect and
conclude by 31 December 2008, the various
stakeholders will prepare their DM plans and carry
out specific activities aimed at seismic risk
reduction. These activities are the most challenging
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
•
Preparing DM plans by schools, hospitals,
super malls, entertainment multiplexes,
etc. and carrying out mock drills for creating
greater public awareness.
•
Strengthening the Emergency Operations
Centre (EOC) network.
•
Streamlining the mobilisation of
communities, civil society partners, the
corporate sector and other stakeholders.
•
•
•
Preparing national, state and district DM
plans, with specific reference to the
management of earthquakes.
Preparing community and village level DM
plans, with specific reference to
management of earthquakes.
Carrying out the vulnerability mapping of
earthquake-prone areas and creating
inventory of resources for effective response.
•
Carrying out earthquake safety education
in educational institutions and conducting
mock drills.
•
Strengthening earthquake safety R&D in
professional technical institutions.
•
Preparing documentation on lessons from
previous earthquakes and ensuring their
wide dissemination.
•
Developing an appropriate mechanism for
licensing and certification of professionals
in earthquake-resistant construction
techniques by collaborating with
professional bodies.
•
Developing appropriate risk transfer
instruments by collaborating with
insurance companies and financial
institutions.
•
Setting up National Disaster Response
Force (NDRF) battalions, training and
equipping them.
•
Setting up State Disaster Response Force
(SDRF) battalions in high seismic risk
states, training and equipping them.
•
Strengthening the medical preparedness
for effective earthquake response.
These activities will be initiated by the central
ministries and departments and state governments,
other key stakeholders and nodal agencies
concerned as parallel processes. A review of the
DM plans and activities carried out during Phase I
will be undertaken, from January to June 2009.
Thereafter, the plans will be revised and updated,
with special emphasis on areas that need greater
attention to achieve the objective of institutionalising
seismic risk reduction. The activities of Phase I will
continue during this period and be further intensified
in Phase II. The implementation of Phase II will
commence from 1 January 2010.
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Table 1: Important Milestones for the Implementation of the Guidelines
S.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Item
Commencement
Phase I Implementation of the Guidelines
Development of detailed action plans
With immediate effect
for each Phase I activity
All activities of Phase I
With immediate effect
Mid-term monitoring and correction
of implementation plans of all
Phase I activities
Completion of Phase I activities
With immediate effect
With immediate effect
Major review of all action plans
of all activities of Phase I
With effect from
1 January 2009
Action and
Date of Completion
Complete by
30 June 2007
Underway by
1 July 2007
Complete by
31 December
2007
Complete by
31 December 2008
Complete by
30 June 2009
Phase II Implementation of the Guidelines
6
Identification of activities to be
undertaken in Phase II, and
development of detailed action plans
for the same
7
Implementation of all Phase II activities
Initiate by 1 July 2009
Complete by
31 December 2009
Underway by
1 January 2010
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1
Earthquake Risk and Vulnerability in India
1.1.1 According to the latest seismic zone map
of India (see Figure 1 – IS:1893, 2002), about 59 per
cent of India’s land area is vulnerable to moderate
or severe seismic hazard, i.e., prone to shaking of
MSK intensity VII and above. In the recent past,
most Indian cities have witnessed the phenomenal
growth of multi-storied buildings, super malls, luxury
apartments and social infrastructure as a part of
the process of development. The rapid expansion
of the built environment in moderate or high-risk
cities makes it imperative to incorporate seismic
risk reduction strategies in various aspects of urban
planning and construction of new structures. During
the period 1990 to 2006, India has experienced 6
major earthquakes that have resulted in over 23,000
deaths and caused enormous damage to property,
assets and infrastructure.
1.1.2 The entire Himalayan Region is considered
to be vulnerable to high intensity earthquakes of a
magnitude exceeding 8.0 on the Richter Scale, and
in a relatively short span of about 50 years, four
such earthquakes have occurred: Shillong, 1897 (M
8.7); Kangra, 1905 (M.8.0); Bihar–Nepal, 1934 (M
8.3); and Assam–Tibet, 1950 (M 8.6). Scientific
publications have warned that very severe
earthquakes are likely to occur anytime in the
Himalayan Region, which could adversely affect the
lives of several million people in India.
Traditional Housing Construction in Rural
Areas
1.2.1 A majority of the buildings constructed in
India, especially in suburban and rural areas, are
The Context
non-engineered and built without adhering to
earthquake-resistant construction principles. Most
contractors and masons engaged in the
construction of these buildings are also not familiar
with the earthquake-resistant features specified in
the building codes. Indigenous earthquake-resistant
houses like the bhongas in the Kutch Region of
Gujarat, dhajji diwari buildings in Jammu & Kashmir,
brick-nogged wood frame constructions in Himachal
Pradesh and ekra constructions made of bamboo
in Assam are increasingly being replaced with
modern Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC)
buildings, often without incorporating earthquakeresistant features and without compliance to
building codes and bye-laws. It is thus necessary
to empower communities to ensure the seismic
safety of the built environment by encouraging the
use of simple, easy and affordable technical
solutions and institutional arrangements. These
make use of indigenous technical knowledge and
locally available materials in the construction of
earthquake-resistant buildings in suburban and rural
areas.
1.2.2 The Bhuj earthquake of 2001 caused
widespread damage and destruction not only to
residential buildings but also to government
buildings, public infrastructure and to buildings
housing industrial enterprises in more than 7,900
villages in 21 districts of Gujarat. The severe
economic losses caused by the Gujarat earthquake
were not only restricted to the local economy but
also influenced the savings and investment patterns
and stock market behaviour. Thus, the economic
impact of an earthquake in a metropolitan city like
Delhi or Mumbai etc., will have primary, secondary
and tertiary effects.
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Critical Areas of Concern in Earthquake
Management
1.3.1 There is an increasing need being felt for a
more systematic, holistic and integrated effort to
address the critical areas of concern responsible
for the weak seismic safety measures in India.
These Guidelines have been drawn up to address
these critical areas of concern and to provide the
foundation for seismic safety.
1.3.2 The regions away from the Himalayas and
other inter-plate boundaries were previously
considered to be relatively safe from the devastating
impact of earthquakes. However, the Koyna
earthquake of 1967 and the Latur earthquake of 1993
dispelled this widely held view and influenced the
revisions of the seismic zoning map. This map,
however, only indicates areas with low, moderate
and high seismic hazards based on past trends.
There is an urgent need to revise the seismic zone
map of India to reflect the return period related
design accelerations. This work will be carried out
in a phased manner covering the Himalayan ranges,
the North-East and the western region in the first
phase.
Critical Areas of Concern for the Management of Earthquakes in India
The critical areas of concern for the management of earthquakes in India include the:
•
lack of awareness among various stakeholders about the seismic risk;
•
inadequate attention to structural mitigation measures in the engineering education syllabus;
•
inadequate monitoring and enforcement of earthquake-resistant building codes and town planning
bye-laws;
•
absence of systems of licensing of engineers and masons;
•
absence of earthquake-resistant features in non-engineered construction in suburban and rural
areas;
•
lack of formal training among professionals in earthquake-resistant construction practices; and
•
lack of adequate preparedness and response capacity among various stakeholder groups.
Urgent Need: A More Realistic and Scientific Seismic Zonation Map
The MoES will coordinate this task in collaboration with technical institutions like the IMD, the Earthquake
Risk Evaluation Centre (EREC), the BIS and the Geological Survey of India (GSI), along with the
concerned scientific and professional institutions.
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THE CONTEXT
Figure 1: Seismic Zone Map of India (IS : 1893, 2002)
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Table 2: Geographic Areas in Seismic Zones
Seismic Zones
II
III
IV
V
Overview of Past Initiatives in India
1.4.1 The GSI has published works like Oldham’s
monograph, On the Great Assam Earthquake of
1827 and monographs on the Kangra earthquake
of 4 April 1905, and the Bihar–Nepal earthquake of
1934, as well as the Seismo-Tectonic Atlas of India
in 2000, which catalogues the major faults and the
earthquake-prone regions in India. The IMD is the
nodal agency of the GoI responsible for monitoring
seismic activities in India through its nationwide
network of seismological observatories. Since 1982,
the Department of Science and Technology (DST),
GoI, has been carrying out a multi-disciplinary and
multi-institutional programme on seismology. It has
also supported the installation of networks of
seismological and strong motion observatories, as
well as shake tables and Global Positioning System
(GPS) networks.
1.4.2 The Survey of India (SOI) has initiated a
project for GPS measurement across the country to
monitor the tectonic movement across the plate
boundaries with the support of the DST and national
institutes specialising in geophysics, geology and
earth sciences like the National Geophysical
Research Institute (NGRI), Hyderabad; the Wadia
Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), Dehradun;
the Indian Institute of Geo Magnetism (IIG), Mumbai;
and the Centre for Earth Science Studies (CESS),
Thiruvananthapuram. Many such institutions have
been carrying out a wide variety of activities related
to earthquake monitoring and hazard estimation
including
seismic
ground
movement
measurements, seismic ground shaking measures
and seismic macro zonation.
% of Geographical Area
41.40
30.40
17.30
10.90
58.6%
1.4.3 Earthquake engineering began as a
discipline in India in 1960, with the establishment
of the School of Research and Training in Earthquake
Engineering (SRTEE) at the University of Roorkee.
Institutions like the Central Building Research
Institute (CBRI), Roorkee; the Central Road Research
Institute (CRRI), New Delhi; the Central Public
Works Department (CPWD), Ministry of Urban
Development (MoUD), GoI; and the Structural
Engineering Research Centre (SERC), Chennai, have
also contributed to the process of improving
earthquake safety in India, by participating in
activities like seismic micro zonation and seismic
retrofitting, developing manuals and training
professionals. The IMD has installed instruments
to record strong motion data in some earthquakeprone regions. Apart from these measures, the
Structural Response Recorders (SRRs) designed
and developed by the University of Roorkee (now
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee) are used
to record structural vibrations in the region of the
epicentre of earthquakes and to record the seismic
wave propagation characteristics. The IMD has
recently set up the EREC to strengthen the national
efforts in improving seismic safety in India. Its
mandate is to act as a knowledge centre to provide
relevant information to various government agencies
and to support risk assessment, preparedness and
earthquake mitigation efforts in the country.
A Recent Initiative in India
1.5.1 The MoES was recently set up by the GoI
by bringing together the Earth Commission and all
other related departments like the IMD and scientific
and technical institutions working in meteorology,
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THE CONTEXT
seismology, atmosphere and earth sciences. Its
function is to primarily coordinate the smooth
functioning of these agencies. The MoES is also
the nodal ministry for addressing the issues related
to monitoring seismic activity through early warning
networks and the dissemination of these early
warning messages to all stakeholder groups
concerned.
Earthquake Engineering Education
1.6.1 The University of Roorkee started a postgraduate programme in earthquake engineering in
1963. Several other institutions including the IITs and
the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore, also
began postgraduate degrees in civil engineering
with a specialisation in earthquake engineering; and
in earth sciences with a specialisation in
seismology. The establishment of the Indian Society
of Earthquake Technology (ISET) in 1964 provided a
forum for scientists and engineers to explore areas
for professionalising earthquake engineering in
India. The ISET organises India’s seminal Earthquake
Engineering Congress every four years and currently
has a membership of over 1,400 geologists,
architects, engineers and seismologists.
1.6.2 The University of Roorkee built the first shock
test facility mounted on railway wagons for testing
full-scale proto types of structures to test earthquake
resistance. The first modern shake table capable
of handling full-scale models was built by the
University of Roorkee in the early 1980s to test the
seismic resistance of nuclear power plant
equipment and for research on earthquake
resistance of other structures. IIT, Powai (Mumbai)
designed and developed a small-scale shake table
in 1985 for testing the seismic resistance of
equipment, materials and structures. Additional
shake tables have also been built at institutions like
the Central Water and Power Research Station
(CWPRS), Pune; IISc, Bangalore; IIT, Delhi and
Kanpur; and SERC, Chennai.
The Approach to Earthquake Management
1.7.1 Continuous improvements in structural and
non-structural measures for earthquake risk reduction
will improve seismic safety in India. Various
agencies of the GoI at the national, state, district
and local levels will carry out specific tasks for the
prevention, preparedness and mitigation of
disasters and for undertaking a holistic, coordinated
and prompt response to any disaster situation.
1.7.2 Earthquakes pose unique challenges during
each phase of the disaster management cycle (i.e.,
during preparedness, prevention, mitigation,
response, rehabilitation and recovery). International
experience has shown that the maximum gains from
earthquake management efforts are secured by
strengthening the pre-earthquake preparedness and
mitigation efforts. These Guidelines are, therefore,
aimed at strengthening the preparedness and
mitigation efforts in India, while simultaneously
improving the country’s emergency response capacity.
The Approach to Management of Earthquakes in India: Strengthening
Earthquake Preparedness, Mitigation and Emergency Response
The Approach to Management of Earthquakes in India, as spelt out by these Guidelines, envisages
the institutionalisation of initiatives and activities based on scientific strategies, covering pre-earthquake
components of prevention, mitigation and preparedness, as well as post-earthquake components of
emergency response, rehabilitation and recovery. The objective of all activities related to the
management of earthquakes is to evolve a community that is informed, resilient and prepared to face
such disasters in the future, with a minimal loss of lives and damage to property, assets and
infrastructure.
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The Framework for Earthquake
Management
1.8.1 DM plans in the past were primarily based
on intuitive considerations and past lessons. While
past experience provides valuable inputs for the
development of risk reduction strategies, the
absence of a rigorous RM framework has resulted
in weak sustainability and inadequate extension of
post-earthquake efforts in other earthquake-prone
areas in India. The DM systems in several developed
countries have evolved on the basis of a rigorous
RM framework as practised in Australia, New
Zealand and Canada. The RM framework, which
provides the logic for these Guidelines, places local
communities at the centre, helps to interface them
with decision makers and provides the opportunity
for continuous and effective feedback between the
community at risk and other stakeholders. The
essential feature of this RM framework is to view
earthquake management issues in a holistic and
integrated manner by identifying, analysing,
evaluating and finally, effectively treating the risks.
These steps will be implemented through a
consultative and participatory process by involving
the key stakeholders and will be monitored and
reviewed concurrently at various stages of
implementation.
1.8.2 This type of RM framework was not
employed in the past in India, primarily due to lack
of appropriate institutional mechanisms, even
though each element of this framework was
practised separately. These Guidelines propose a
holistic approach based on such an integrated RM
framework that can be implemented in the field,
considered for policy making, and incorporating
different stakeholders in the process.
1.8.3 In India, the state governments are primarily
responsible for various aspects of DM within the
states, including capacity building at various levels,
as well as for fostering partnerships between the
different stakeholders. These Guidelines provide the
basis for the formulation of appropriate plans for
the promotion of an earthquake resilient society, with
the cooperation of various stakeholders, and to
ensure the effective implementation of these plans
at various levels. The earthquake management
framework imposes the additional responsibility on
professionals to improve their skills and expertise,
to contribute to capacity development, and to
cooperate with other stakeholders in ensuring
seismic safety in India. Specialists, particularly
scientists, engineers, architects and planners, will
be closely involved in various earthquake
management initiatives at all levels.
1.8.4 The role of community participation in DM
is critical for the long-term sustainability of these
efforts. When the community becomes a part of
the decision making system, its involvement grows.
Thus, taking inputs from the community is the most
important factor in sustaining the effort for effective
DM initiatives, and for ensuring their ownership and
accountability. Following these guidelines, the
community will participate at the local level in the
planning, implementation and monitoring processes.
DM Plans
1.9.1 Central ministries, departments and state
governments are required to prepare DM plans to
improve earthquake preparedness, mitigation and
emergency response in accordance with these
guidelines. A typical DM plan will, inter alia, include
aspects of earthquake management, like
identification of all tasks to be undertaken before,
during and after an earthquake; outline the response
mechanism with clearly defined roles and
responsibilities for various stakeholders; and identify
the available resources to ensure their effective
utilisation in the event of an earthquake. The plans
will spell out the strategies for addressing the various
tasks relating to earthquake preparedness and
awareness creation, capacity development,
monitoring and enforcement of earthquake-resistant
codes and building bye-laws. They will also include
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THE CONTEXT
emergency response, earthquake-resistant design
and construction of new structures, and selective
seismic strengthening and retrofitting of priority and
lifeline structures in earthquake-prone areas. The
India Disaster Resource Network (IDRN) database
of resource inventories in the districts will be
strengthened by the states through regular
updating. States will also integrate this database
with their DM plans.
1.9.2 The DM plans will be funded by resources
flowing out of the efforts of the central and state
governments to mainstream DM concerns into
developmental programmes such as the Jawaharlal
Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM);
from allocations to be made by various central
governments/departments and state governments
in their five-year/annual plans; and from resources
available in prevailing response/mitigation funds at
various levels, as well as from specially undertaken
mitigation projects like the proposed National
Earthquake Mitigation Project, the Urban Earthquake
Vulnerability Reduction Project (UEVRP), etc.
Additional resources may also be mobilised for
specific activities as part of Public Private
Partnership (PPP) efforts or, from other sources of
funding wherever necessary.
Institutional
Implementation
Mechanisms
for
1.10.1 The DM Act, 2005 has mandated the
formation of apex bodies in each of the states and
Union Territories (UTs), called the SDMAs at the state
level and the DDMAs at the district level for effective
DM. While the NDMA is responsible for developing
national policy and guidelines, the NEC will prepare
the National Disaster Management Plan which will
be approved by the NDMA.
1.10.2 The State Executive Committees (SECs)
of the SDMAs are responsible for developing their
DM plans as per the national policy and guidelines,
and for implementing the Guidelines with the help
of the DDMAs. The state governments/SDMAs will
set up State Earthquake Management Committees
(SEMCs) and designate a nodal officer responsible
for seismic safety. The SEMCs will consist of
specialists with field experience in earthquake
management, as well as representatives of the
various stakeholders. These committees will assist
the SDMAs in preparing their DM plans and in
developing appropriate implementation and
monitoring mechanisms.
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2
Guidelines—An Overview
Guidelines for Earthquake Management
2.1.1 As mentioned in the previous chapter,
central ministries and departments and the state
governments will prepare DM plans, which will have
specific components on earthquake management,
based on these Guidelines. These plans will cover
all aspects of the entire DM cycle, be reviewed
and updated at periodic intervals and implemented
through appropriate, well coordinated and time
bound actions as laid down in these Guidelines.
As most developmental activities, especially in high
seismic risk areas, can enhance earthquake risk
unless special efforts are made to address these
concerns, all these agencies will make special efforts
to ensure the incorporation of earthquake-resistant
features in the design and construction of all new
buildings and structures.
Mainstreaming Earthquake Mitigation
2.2.1 All central ministries and departments, as
well as state government departments and
agencies will designate nodal officers responsible
for earthquake management activities and for the
effective formulation and implementation of the DM
plans, with special emphasis on management of
earthquakes. The policies, initiatives and activities
of these agencies will address the concerns of all
stakeholders involved in the development,
management and maintenance of the built
environment to ensure seismic safety. All
stakeholder agencies will also carry out regular mock
drills and table top simulations for testing these
plans. The NEC will prepare the National Disaster
Management Plan, based on the National Disaster
Management Policy and disaster specific
Guidelines, and will incorporate the key elements
of the plans prepared by various central ministries
and departments and state governments. Five year
and annual plans of all central ministries and
departments, as well as those of state
governments, will include DM components to
support the activities spelt out in these plans.
2.2.2 The nodal agencies at the central and state
levels will encourage all stakeholders to set up
appropriate institutional mechanisms to ensure that
the national earthquake safety agenda is not only
implemented but also closely monitored vis-à-vis
specific targets. Such nodal agencies will identify
appropriate agencies and institutions to develop
standardised training modules, to prepare public
awareness resource materials and to monitor the
implementation of the DM plans based on these
Guidelines.
The Six Pillars of Earthquake
Management
2.3.1 These Guidelines rest on the following six
pillars of seismic safety for improving the
effectiveness of earthquake management in India
(see Figure 2).
Time line for Implementation
2.4.1 These Guidelines will come into force with
immediate effect. The activities are envisaged to
be implemented in two phases. Phase I will
commence with immediate effect, conclude by 31
December 2008 and be reviewed by 30 June 2009.
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GUIDELINES—AN OVERVIEW
Based on this review, the activities in Phase II will
be designed in the second half of 2009 and Phase
II will begin by 1 January 2010. However, in the
interim period during 2009, Phase I activities will
be continued as ongoing activities, even when the
review and Phase II activities design process are
carried out. The activities in Phase I will pose very
serious challenges as they will lay the foundation
Emergency Response
Capacity Development
(Education, Training, R & D, Capacity Building and
Documentation)
Awareness & Preparedness
Regulation and Enforcement
Selective Seismic Strengthening & Retrofitting of existing
Priority Structures and Lifeline Structures
Earthquake Resistant
Construction of New Structures
Figure 2: The Six Pillars for Earthquake Management in India
for seismic safety in India. During Phase II, the
activities will be further intensified and special efforts
will be made to consolidate the lessons of Phase I
in mobilising more effective stakeholder participation
for achieving seismic risk reduction in India. The
milestones recommended for the implementation
of the Guidelines are listed in Table 3.
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Table 3: Milestones for the Implementation of the Guidelines
S.
No.
Item
Commencement
Action and
Date of Completion
Phase I Implementation of the Guidelines
1
2
3
4
5
Development of detailed action plans
for each Phase I activity
All activities of Phase I
With immediate effect
Mid-term monitoring and correction
of implementation plans of all
Phase I activities
Completion of Phase I activities
With immediate effect
With immediate effect
Major review of all action plans
of all activities of Phase I
With effect from
1 January 2009
With immediate effect
Complete by
30 June 2007
Underway by
1 July 2007
Complete by
31 December
2007
Complete by
31 December 2008
Complete by
30 June 2009
Phase II Implementation of the Guidelines
6
Identification of activities to be
undertaken in Phase II, and
developmentof detailed action plans
for the same
7
Implementation of all Phase II activities
Initiated by 1 July 2009
Complete by
31 December
2009
Underway by
1 January 2010
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3
Earthquake-Resistant Design and
Construction of New Structures
The Need for Making All New
Constructions Earthquake-Resistant
3.1.1 In most earthquakes, the collapse of structures
like houses, schools, hospitals and public buildings
results in the widespread loss of lives and damage.
Earthquakes also destroy public infrastructure like
roads, dams and bridges, as well as public utilities
like power and water supply installations. Past
earthquakes show that over 95 per cent of the lives
lost were due to the collapse of buildings that were
not earthquake-resistant. Though there are building
codes and other regulations which make it
mandatory that all structures in earthquake-prone
areas in the country must be built in accordance
with earthquake-resistant construction techniques,
new constructions often overlook strict compliance
to such regulations and building codes.
Time-Frame and Milestones
3.2.1 These Guidelines will come into force with
immediate effect. All new construction will be made
to comply with earthquake-resistant building codes
and the modified techno-legal regime, which
includes the revised town planning bye-laws, land
use zoning, Development Control Regulations
(DCRs) and building codes by 30 June 2007. While
eventually, all new construction will be built as per
earthquake-resistant building codes, compliance
will be made mandatory with immediate effect in
towns and cities in Zones III, IV and V. A vulnerability
and risk assessment project will be initiated shortly,
as a part of which, an updated list will be compiled
of all earthquake-prone districts, cities and towns.
3.2.2 Faculty members in engineering colleges,
architecture colleges, Industrial Training Institutes
(ITIs) and polytechnics will also be provided
adequate exposure to earthquake-resistant design
and construction techniques, so that students are
made aware of earthquake-resistant design and
construction. While the implementation of these
Guidelines in areas within seismic Zone III will be
initiated during Phase I, these efforts will be
intensified in these areas during Phase II.
Institutionalisation of EarthquakeResistant Design and Construction
3.3.1 All central ministries and departments and
state governments will facilitate the implementation
and enforcement of relevant standards for
seismically safe design and construction of
buildings, bridges, flyovers, ports and harbours,
and other lifeline and commercially important
structures falling within their administrative control.
State governments/SDMAs and ULBs will also
consider using incentives and disincentives,
coupled with external compliance reviews by
accredited agencies, to encourage the construction
of earthquake-safe buildings.
3.3.2 The state governments/SDMAs will organise
capacity building programmes among professionals
and masons for the design and construction of new
buildings as per earthquake-resistant building
codes. They will also ensure that the construction
of all new dams, bridges, flyovers, ports, other
lifeline structures, strategic assets and
commercially important structures are made
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
compliant with the relevant earthquake safety
standards specified in the relevant codes and
standards, and certify them for compliance. State
governments will incorporate earthquake-resistant
features in standard designs for the construction of
buildings in large numbers like schools, primary
health centres, anganwadi centres, and panchayat
buildings. These will serve as pilot projects to
demonstrate the efficacy of earthquake-resistant
construction.
audit process by qualified professionals as
recommended in the model techno-legal regime
developed by an expert group set up by the Ministry
of Home Affairs (MHA), GoI. This review process
will be carried out using a checklist of all
computational and non-computational verifications,
before issuing building approvals. A detailed peer
review or third party audit of the design and
construction of major construction works will be
undertaken by qualified accredited agencies for
ensuring compliance with the techno-legal regime.
Compliance Review
3.4.1 The designs of all new buildings and
structures specified in the model bye-laws will be
scrutinised by the competent authorities through a
general compliance review and mandatory technical
Time-Frame for Compliance of Seismic
Safety of New Constructions
3.4.2 The schedule of activities for ensuring seismic
safety of all new constructions is given in Table 4.
Table 4: Schedule of Activities for Ensuring Seismic Safety of all New Constructions
Activity
3 A Training of
professionals
Commence
ment
2007
Jun
With
immediate
effect
Sep
2008
Dec
Mar
Sep
Dec
Implement
3 B Dissemination of With
documents
immediate
effect
Implement
3 C Undertaking pilot With
projects on earth- immediate
quake resistant effect
construction
Implement
3D Modifying
regulations and
town planning
bye-laws
Implement
With
immediate
effect
3 E Undertaking
With
mandatory third immediate
party detailed
effect
technical audit
Jun
M*
M*
Implement
*M: Meetings
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4
Seismic Strengthening
and Retrofitting
of Lifeline and Priority Structures
Need for Seismic Strengthening of
Existing Structures
4.1.1 There are approximately 12 crore buildings
in seismic Zones III, IV and V. Most of these
buildings are not earthquake-resistant and are
potentially vulnerable to collapse in the event of a
high intensity earthquake. As it is not practically
feasible or financially viable to retrofit all the existing
buildings, these Guidelines recommend the
structural safety audit and retrofitting of select critical
lifeline structures and high priority buildings. Such
selection will be based on considerations such as
the degree of risk, the potential loss of life and the
estimated financial implications for each structure,
especially in high-risk areas, i.e., in seismic Zones
III, IV and V. While these Guidelines indicate an
illustrative list of such buildings and structures, the
state governments/SDMAs will, in consultation with
their SEMCs and Hazard Safety Cells (HSCs), review
their existing built environment, and prepare such lists.
4.1.2 While drawing up the priority list, a cluster
approach will be followed for selecting various types
of critical lifeline structures and various categories
of building types (RCC, stone masonry, adobe, brick
and mortar, etc.) in adjoining districts to encourage
mutual consultations, demonstrations and possible
replication in other districts. Thus, primary schools,
primary health centres, panchayat offices, post
offices, block offices, etc., may be taken up in Zone
III, IV and V areas to study their ability to withstand
high intensity earthquakes and where found to be
expedient, some selected priority buildings will be
taken up for seismic strengthening and retrofitting.
Such retrofitted buildings will provide valuable
demonstration of the efficacy of seismic
strengthening and retrofitting. The state
governments/SDMAs will take up selected critical
lifeline structures in some of these high-risk areas
as pilot projects in a phased manner.
4.1.3 Seismic retrofitting is required not only for
the structures of buildings (including their
foundations) but also for their non-structural
components like building finishes and contents. As
the current costs of these components constitute
over two-thirds of the total cost, their seismic
retrofitting requires due attention. Seismic
retrofitting is a specialised technical task which
needs to be handled by engineers proficient in this
field, as any routine alteration, repair or maintenance
carried out in a structure may not always guarantee
an improvement in its seismic safety, and may in
fact, increase its vulnerability.
Prioritisation of Structures
4.2.1 All central ministries and departments and
state governments will draw up phased
programmes for seismic strengthening and
retrofitting of selected existing structures duly
prioritised and implement them through ULBs and
PRIs. Like all new construction, any structural
modification of existing buildings will also require
compliance with seismic safely regulations.
4.2.2 The initial focus for structural safety audit
and retrofitting will be on government and public
buildings. The necessary capacity for carrying out
similar assessments for private buildings will also
be developed through suitable capacity
development efforts among the professionals in the
private sector. The nodal agencies will provide in
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
the public domain, the details of technical guidance
for carrying out structural safety audit of lifeline
structures, seismic strengthening and retrofitting,
for the use of the general public and professionals
in the private sector.
An Illustrative Priority List for
Structural Safety Audit, Seismic
Strengthening and Retrofitting
•
Buildings of national importance like
Rashtrapati Bhavan, Parliament House, the
Supreme Court of India, Raj Bhavans,
Legislatures, High Courts, Central and State
Secretariats, historical monuments,
museums, heritage buildings, strategic
assets and vital installations such as power
plants, and water works.
•
Lifeline buildings, structures and critical
facilities like schools, colleges and
academic institutions; hospitals and health
facilities, tertiary care centres and all
hospitals designated as major hospitals.
•
Public utility structures like reservoirs and
dams; bridges and flyovers; ports and
harbours; airports, railway stations and bus
station complexes.
•
Important buildings that ensure governance
and business continuity like offices of the
district collector and superintendent of
police in districts; buildings of financial
institutions like the Reserve Bank of India
and the stock exchanges.
•
Multi-storeyed buildings with five or more
floors in residential apartments, office and
commercial complexes.
Notes: 1. The responsibility to identify and
prioritise these structures will rest with respective
state governments.
2. Additional lists of buildings and structures to
be retrofitted can be prepared, after completion
of the first phase of retrofitting of prioritised
buildings and structures, based on the experience
gained, by respective state governments.
Structural Safety Audit of Critical Lifeline
Structures
4.3.1 The seismic risk profile can be quantified
only after the vulnerability of building inventory in a
geographic area is compiled. Assessment
techniques may be used to determine the
vulnerability of all buildings, in the order of priority
decided by the state governments/SDMAs, in
consultation with their SEMCs and HSCs. Two levels
of seismic vulnerability assessment can be carried
out for buildings, namely Rapid Visual Screening
(RVS) and Detailed Vulnerability Assessment (DVA).
The former is a quick estimation with visual but
technical information of structures to determine
whether the structure is considered to be vulnerable
or not. Once the RVS identifies a structure to be
vulnerable, then that structure is subjected to a
detailed assessment for a quantitative evaluation
of its vulnerability. For structures other than
buildings, DVAs are normally carried out. A DVA
consists of evaluating the structural systems that
resist the earthquake loads, as well as assessing
non-structural elements like the contents, finishes
and elements that do not resist any earthquake load
of the structure.
4.3.2 RVS procedures need to be developed for
all types of building systems in India, e.g., brick
and stone masonry buildings, RCC frame buildings
with masonry infill, etc. Detailed studies will be
conducted at the national level to develop a
consensus on the methodology that should be
undertaken for RVS of buildings in India as a part of
seismic vulnerability assessment. The vulnerability
assessment exercise will be repeated every 10
years to monitor the modification to the vulnerability
profile of the built environment.
4.3.3 At the national, state and district levels,
issues such as lack of knowledge on cost estimates
that will be incurred in retrofitting each type of
structure, the types of tools required for undertaking
modifications/enhancements of existing structural
elements, the time required to complete the retrofit
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SEISMIC STRENGTHENING AND RETROFITTING OF LIFELINE AND PRIORITY STRUCTURES
of a particular size and type of building, and the
artisans who have the proficiency in seismic
retrofitting, etc., will be addressed in collaboration
with the nodal agencies and professional bodies
concerned. Organisations like the Institution of
Engineers (India) (IE[I]), Construction Industry
Development Council (CIDC), Construction
Federation of India (CFI), and the National Academy
of Construction (NAC), will be associated to
develop road maps for creating the required
manpower, tools and construction management
system to implement the seismic retrofitting
challenge in India. In consultation with these
agencies, a standardised procedure for vulnerability
assessment will be prepared at the national level
to clarify the process and issues involved in the
seismic retrofitting of each type of structure, in line
with the relevant national standards.
Public Awareness Campaigns
4.4.1 Public awareness campaigns will be
initiated at the national, state and district levels in
high-risk areas for widely disseminating information
on earthquake risk reduction through seismic
retrofitting among all stakeholders and to develop
professional human resources for seismic
retrofitting. Case studies documenting the process
of vulnerability assessment will be prepared and
disseminated for creating greater public awareness
among professionals and critical stakeholders.
Seismic risk reduction can be achieved by applying
currently available national and international
knowledge on seismic strengthening and
retrofitting; imbibing available national and
international knowledge and customising the same;
and finally, generating new applied knowledge to
address the problems specific to India. Significant
and maximum gains can be achieved by initiating
rigorous research and development activities to
develop new knowledge and techniques and to
adapt the available knowledge to the Indian context.
4.4.2 State governments/SDMAs and professional
bodies will organise knowledge sharing workshops
to disseminate the methodology and important
experiences of seismic strengthening and
retrofitting of lifeline structures to the professional
community. State governments will carry out
structural safety audit of all dams, bridges and
flyovers, and undertake phased retrofitting of all weak
structures. They will also support private agencies
to develop their capacity to conduct seismic
evaluation and strengthening of existing privately
owned structures.
Seismic Strengthening and Retrofitting
4.5.1 The seismic strengthening and retrofitting
of some fragile lifeline structures will be undertaken
through a pilot project under the UEVRP being
implemented by the GoI in collaboration with the
United Nations Development Program (UNDP) or,
through the National Earthquake Mitigation Project
in a phased manner. The prioritisation of the cities
will be based on the degree of seismic hazard,
population size, level of vulnerability of the building/
structure, importance of the structure, and the speed
with which the states can undertake these initiatives.
The cities have been identified based on these
criteria for seismic strengthening and retrofitting of
selected lifeline structures. In the first priority,
metropolitan cities and major townships in Zones
III, IV, and V with large populations are included
(see Table 5). Even though some of the capital cities
of the north-eastern states may not have large
populations, they fall within the high seismic risk
zone and hence have been included in the priority
cities.
4.5.2 Similar efforts will be carried out in other
high-risk cities in a selective manner by initially
starting with the capacity development of
professionals to carry out these tasks.
Accomplishing seismic retrofitting of the existing
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Table 5 : List of Cities with the First
Level of Priority
S.No. Name of the City
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Agartala
Aizawal
Gangtok
Guwahati
Imphal
Itanagar
Kohima
Port Blair
Shillong
Srinagar
Ambala
Amritsar
Chandigarh
Dehradun
Delhi
Gurgaon
Jalandhar
Jammu
Jamnagar
Meerut
Patna
Shimla
Chennai
Kolkata
Lucknow
Mumbai
Seismic Zone
V
IV
III
Note: This list may undergo some changes on
completion of microzonation studies.
built environment requires a systematic and
sustained effort, by carrying out several activities in
each of the towns and cities (see Table 6). These
activities are:
•
Developing an inventory of the existing built
environment.
•
Assessing the vulnerability of these
constructions.
•
Prioritising structures found vulnerable.
•
Developing seismic retrofitting measures.
•
Undertaking construction work to
strengthen vulnerable structures.
4.5.3 While undertaking seismic retrofitting of the
critical and lifeline structures, other structures will
be insured against losses during future
earthquakes. Insurance companies will be
encouraged to introduce innovative insurance
schemes in moderate and high earthquake risk
zones in consultation with the ULBs and respective
Disaster Management Authorities (DMAs).
4.5.4 State governments/SDMAs will initiate
efforts to compile GIS databases and develop a
GIS bank consisting of GIS maps for all urban areas,
indicating all critical structures and infrastructure.
These maps will be used in DM planning and in
coordinating response, relief and rehabilitation
activities after a disaster.
4.5.5 State governments/SDMAs will develop
appropriate mechanisms, in consultation with their
SEMCs and HSCs, to review and ensure the seismic
safety of existing constructions in accordance with
the latest norms when significant alterations or
additions are made to existing buildings.
4.5.6 The same process needs to be carried out
in respect of defence works/structures in high risk
areas.
Financial Allocations for Carrying out
Selective Retrofitting
4.6.1 Central ministries and departments and
state governments will mainstream DM efforts in
their development plans. In the annual plans,
specific allocations will be made for carrying out
disaster preparedness efforts, as well as disaster
mitigation measures including retrofitting of
selected lifeline structures. Wherever necessary and
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SEISMIC STRENGTHENING AND RETROFITTING OF LIFELINE AND PRIORITY STRUCTURES
feasible, the central ministries and departments and
ULBs in the states may initiate discussions with
corporate sector undertakings to support the
retrofitting measures of selected lifeline structures
as a part of PPP efforts and Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR).
Table 6: Schedule of Activities for Seismic Retrofitting
Activity
Commence
ment
2007
Jun
4 A Developing
inventory of
existing built
environment
With
immediate
effect
4 B Assessing
vulnerability of
constructions
With
immediate
effect
4 C Prioritising
vulnerable
structures
With
immediate
effect
M*
4D Developing
seismic
retrofitting
measures
With
immediate
effect
M*
4 E Undertaking
retrofitting to
strengthen
vulnerable
structures
With
immediate
effect
M*
Sep
2008
Dec
Mar
Jun
Sep
Dec
Implement
Implement
Implement
Implement
M*
Implement
*M: Meetings
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
5
Regulation and Enforcement
Building Codes and Other Safety Codes
5.1.1 State governments/SDMAs will, in
consultation with their SEMCs and HSCs, establish
the necessary techno-legal and techno-financial
mechanisms. This is to ensure that all stakeholders
like builders, architects, engineers and government
departments, responsible for regulation and
enforcement adopt earthquake-safe construction
practices and provide for seismic safety in all design
and construction activities in such a way that
acceptable safety benchmarks are satisfied.
Adoption of Model Town Planning
Bye-Law by State Governments
In recognition of the importance of a technolegal framework for regulating the built
environment, the MHA had constituted a national
level expert group to recommend modifications
of existing regulations to ensure structural safety.
This group recommended modifications to the
town and country planning Acts, land use and
zoning regulations, DCRs and building bye-laws
and developed a set of model bye-laws which
are technically rigorous and conform to globally
accepted norms. They also prescribe regulatory,
quality control and compliance mechanisms.
The MHA has circulated these Model Bye-Laws
to the state governments for review of the byelaws currently in force and for ensuring their
adoption after revision. The state governments
will review and adopt the Model Town Planning
Bye-Law by 30 June 2007.
5.1.2 The following earthquake design and
construction related codes are pending revision. The
BIS will contemporise and revise these codes at
the earliest but definitely within the next two years.
Priority for Finalising EarthquakeResistant Design and Construction
Related Codes by the BIS
•
IS:1893 (Part 2) :: Elevated and Ground
Supported Liquid Retaining Structures,
(Part 3) :: Bridges and Retaining Walls,
and (Part 5) :: Dams and Embankments
•
IS:4326 :: Earthquake Resistant
Construction
•
IS:13920 :: Ductile Detailing of Reinforced
Concrete Structures
•
IS:13827 :: Earthen Dwellings
•
IS:13828 :: Low Strength Masonry
Structures
•
IS:13935 :: Seismic Strengthening of
Structures
5.1.3 The lack of easy availability of the seismic
safety codes and standards, in particular their latest
revisions, has been frequently cited as one of the
major factors responsible for the poor
implementation of earthquake-resistant construction
practices. Considering the overriding interest of
public safety, the BIS will place in the public domain
including the Internet for free download, all Indian
standards related to seismic safety.
5.1.4 A periodic revision of the codes and
standards relating to earthquake-resistant
construction will be undertaken by drafting groups
within a fixed time-frame of five years or even earlier
on priority basis, in keeping with international
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REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT
practices. Other than the BIS, there are a number
of other bodies that develop design codes and
guidelines in the country, e.g., the Indian Roads
Congress (IRC), Ministry of Shipping, Road
Transport and Highways (MoSRTH), Research
Designs and Standards Organisation (RDSO),
Ministry of Railways (MoR), and the Atomic Energy
Regulatory Board (AERB), Department of Atomic
Energy (DAE). Codes developed by these
organisations will also be updated and made
consistent with the current state-of-the-art
techniques on earthquake-resistant design and
construction. These agencies also have a number
of construction practices regulated through internal
memos, the review of which will also be undertaken
at the earliest.
5.1.5 Design provisions are required on many
topics that have not been addressed so far in the
existing codes or guidelines in India. Such topics
include:
•
Seismic design of non-structural elements
and components of buildings and
structures.
•
Seismic design of reinforced masonry
structures.
•
Seismic evaluation and strengthening of
structures.
•
Seismic design of buried and above ground
pipelines.
•
Seismic design and ductile detaining of
steel structures.
•
Seismic design and ductile detaining of
bridge piers.
•
Seismic design, construction and
manufacture of facilities, structures and
components related to electrical power
generation, transmission and distribution.
•
Seismic design of tunnels.
5.1.6 The MoES will ensure that the relevant
national code writing bodies prepare action plans
to carry out regular revision of existing codes and
for soliciting draft provisions for discussion on new
codes to be developed. Commentaries and
explanatory handbooks will be prepared for all the
codes already published. In particular, explanatory
commentaries are required for the two recently
published BIS codes namely, IS:1893 (Part 1):
General Criteria and Building Provisions and IS:1893
(Part 4): Industrial and Stack-like Structures, to
facilitate easy understanding of the provisions by
practitioners, teachers and students.
Techno-Legal Regime
5.2.1 All state governments/SDMAs will adopt the
model techno-legal framework for ensuring
compliance of earthquake-resistant design and
construction practices in all new constructions. State
governments will update the urban regulations by
amending them to incorporate multi-hazard safety
requirements. State governments will review, revise
and update the town and country planning Acts,
land use and zoning regulations, building bye-laws
and DCRs, and this process will be repeated at
least once every five years.
Licensing and
Professionals
Certification
of
5.3.1 All professionals dealing with safety
aspects of buildings and structures will be certified
through a licensing process. Such certification
requirements, in accordance with the criteria
evolved by the model techno-legal regime, will be
incorporated in the DCRs. Architects and engineers
working with the GoI and state government
organisations will also be subject to this licensing.
The MoES will, in collaboration with the relevant
central ministries and departments, evolve an
appropriate techno-legal framework for making the
licensing of engineers mandatory. Steps will be
initiated to include in the proposed Engineers’ Bill,
enabling provisions for facilitating the
implementation of the plans and the Guidelines.
The renewal of licenses will be made contingent
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
on the certification of the skills upgradation of
professionals and their proficiency in seismic safety
standards and codes.
5.3.2 In the case of architects, both the statutory
body to register architects, namely the Council of
Architecture (COA), and the professional body to
coordinate with architects, namely the Indian
Institute of Architects (IIA), will be responsible for
the registration, training and upgradation of skills
of architects in earthquake-resistant design and
construction. In the case of engineers, only
professional bodies, such as the IE(I), will be
entrusted with the responsibility to register engineers
and regulate the profession at the national level.
The MoES will coordinate with the statutory and
professional bodies of architects and engineers to
include concepts of earthquake-resistant design
and construction in their curriculum and train
practising professionals on earthquake-resistant
design and construction in their respective fields.
5.3.3 The MoES will also facilitate the
establishment of a techno-legal framework for the
certification of artisans involved in the construction
industry along the lines of the recent experience of
certification of masons in Gujarat. All artisans
involved in both public and private construction
projects will be certified for their skills in ensuring
seismic safety. State governments will follow a fiveyear licensing cycle, wherein the certification is
renewed every five years. State governments will
also develop a scheme for setting up training
centres for artisans in earthquake-prone areas.
These training centres will demonstrate prototypes
of earthquake-resistant construction, and will also
assist the appropriate dissemination of materials
for creating larger public awareness on earthquakeresistant construction techniques.
Compliance Review
5.4.1 Designs of all structures will go through a
mandatory compliance review by the professionals
of the ULBs and PRIs to which the designs are
submitted for approval. Self-certification for all
structures will be an integral part of the approval
process for the building plans under which all
professionals involved in different aspects of
building safety certify the compliance of these new
structures to appropriate standards, codes and
regulations. The major projects and critical
structures will be put through a mandatory
compliance review by qualified external agencies.
5.4.2 The model techno-legal regime
recommended by the expert group set up by the
MHA, GoI, will be incorporated in the DCRs to
enforce the scrutiny of building designs for their
compliance to safety in accordance with the graded
requirements under the DCRs. This scrutiny will be
applicable to all construction of buildings and
structures in both urban and rural areas. State
governments, in consultation with their SEMCs and
HSCs, will ensure that the bodies responsible for
compliance are equipped with qualified architects
and engineers to undertake general compliance
reviews. These professionals, who may be
government employees or accredited private
practitioners, will be trained specifically in the
compliance of the bye-laws. The MoES will, in
consultation with state governments and agencies
concerned, develop a checklist of items to be
verified and the method for such verification at
national level consultative workshops and provide
them as training inputs.
5.4.3 The designs of some structures randomly
selected by the ULBs will be subjected to detailed
technical audit for reviewing the entire design
process and detailed design calculations. A
procedure will be developed by each state
government/SDMA for undertaking this third party
audit or external compliance review by accredited
agencies for ensuring the review of a structural
safety audit. In particular, the external compliance
review of lifeline buildings and infrastructure in
earthquake-prone areas will be undertaken
according to the recommendations of the expert
group set up by the MHA, GoI.
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REGULATION AND ENFORCEMENT
Need for Technical Audits and
Monitoring
All modifications to existing buildings, including
seismic strengthening and retrofitting projects,
will be regulated and monitored by the ULBs.
The structural design calculations and drawings
of public buildings will be scrutinised for
regulation compliance as per the specifications
of the model techno-legal regime. In the case
of major projects, these aspects will be
subjected to detailed technical audit before
granting the building permissions. It will also
be ensured that only building materials, of the
quality conforming to the seismic safety codes
and standards, will be used in the construction
of buildings and structures.
Techno-Financial Regime
5.5.1 After an earthquake, the central and state
governments provide funds for immediate relief and
rehabilitation. This process does not adequately
cover the requirements for reconstruction of
damaged structures, especially those that are
privately owned. Expenditure incurred by the GoI in
the provision of funds for relief, rehabilitation and
reconstruction is increasing manifold due to the
rapidly increasing risk profile of the country. In most
countries, risk transfer through insurance has been
adopted as a step towards providing adequate
compensation for the loss of property caused by
disasters. Such a mechanism reduces the financial
burden of the government. Risk transfer
mechanisms have been found to be fairly
successful hence, the insurance sector will be
encouraged to promote such mechanisms in the
future.
5.5.2 The MoES will develop a national strategy
for risk transfer, using the experiences of micro level
initiatives in some states and global best practices.
The MoES will facilitate the development and design
of appropriate risk avoidance, risk sharing and risk
transfer mechanisms in consultation with financial
institutions, insurance companies and reinsurance
agencies.
5.5.3 Financial institutions will consider the
compliance of seismic safety before offering
housing loans including those for construction of
multi-storeyed complexes. The housing
development programmes supported by the GoI
and state governments (like Indira Awas Yojana),
and all large-scale housing schemes will be made
to comply with earthquake-resistant design and
construction practices. The MoES will coordinate
with the central ministries/departments concerned
and state governments’ compliance to this aspect
by financial institutions.
5.5.4 The approval and disbursement of funds
from banks and other financial institutions to
industrial units will also be linked to the compliance
with earthquake safety norms by these units. The
MoES will coordinate, with the relevant bodies, the
development of suitable techno-financial measures
to improve the earthquake safety of the industrial
units’ corporate groups, Special Economic Zones
(SEZs) and techno parks etc.
Earthquake-Resistant Construction in
Rural and Semi-Urban Areas
5.6.1 Rural and semi-urban areas account for most
of the total building stock in India. The construction
of these structures is presently unregulated and is
adding to the numbers of vulnerable structures.
Specific illustrative guidelines will be issued by
state governments for each non-engineered
construction type in earthquake-prone areas and
demonstrated through the construction of new
public buildings in villages. For instance, the
buildings of panchayat offices, post offices, primary
schools and primary health centres in rural and
semi-urban areas will be used as demonstration
buildings.
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Need for Strict Monitoring of Modifications of Buildings Recognising Seismic
Risk and Vulnerability
•
No relaxation in building plans which violate safety parameters in relation to earthquake safety
will be permissible under any law, rule or regulation in force.
•
While revising the DCRs and master plans, special attention will be paid to ensure that the
seismic risk and vulnerabilities of existing buildings to withstand high-intensity earthquakes
before allowing any relaxation relating to approvals for additional floors.
5.6.2 Currently, construction in rural areas is not
governed by bye-laws such as those developed for
the municipal and urban areas. State governments
will develop suitable bye-laws for rural areas where
most buildings are non-engineered, keeping in mind
the local conditions, and extend them to the rural
areas, especially on priority in high-risk areas. State
governments/SDMAs, in consultation with SEMCs
and HSCs, will regulate all future constructions to
make them earthquake-resistant.
Schedule for Regulation and Enforcement
5.7.1 The schedule of activities for regulation and
enforcement is given in Table 7. All activities will be
institutionalised by and continue beyond December 2008.
Table 7: Schedule of Activities for Techno-Legal and Techno-Financial Regimes
Activity
Commence
ment
2007
Jun
Sep
2008
Dec
5 A Seismic Design With
immediate
Codes
effect
Implement
5 B Municipal Acts, With
immediate
Regulations, &
Bye-laws
effect
Implement
5 C Licensing &
Registration of With
Professionals
immediate
and Certification effect
of Artisans
M*
Mar
With
immediate
effect
5 E Risk Transfer
Mechanisms
With
immediate
effect
M*
M*
5F Participation of
Financial
Institutions
With
immediate
effect
M*
M*
Sep
Dec
Implement
M*
5D Scrutiny of
Designs and
Building
Permissions
Jun
Implement
Implement
Implement
*M: Meetings
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6
Awareness and Preparedness
Public Awareness
6.1.1 One of the most challenging tasks in
earthquake preparedness and mitigation is the
sensitisation of all stakeholders to the prevalent
seismic risk, and educating and training them to
participate in earthquake preparedness and
mitigation efforts. If the community recognises the
importance of incorporating seismic safety
measures in the construction of residential buildings,
tremendous gains can be achieved in earthquake
mitigation. State governments/SDMAs will, in
collaboration with nodal agencies and other key
stakeholders, make special efforts to mobilise
communities to carry out earthquake mitigation
efforts. At the national level, public awareness
materials like brochures, manuals, booklets, action
plans, videos, and demonstration kits will be
developed for creating public awareness on this
subject. Such materials will be fine-tuned by the
state governments/SDMAs to suit local needs,
especially in rural areas. Electronic and print media
will also be used to help create greater public
awareness of seismic risk and vulnerability and on
structural and non-structural risk reduction
measures. The EREC (IMD) and other knowledge
institutions such as the IITs and National Institutes
of Technology (NITs) will play a major role in
producing these materials.
6.1.2 A comprehensive awareness campaign will
be developed and implemented on the safe
practices to be followed before, during and after
an earthquake. This campaign will also emphasise
the prevalent seismic risk and vulnerability of the
states as well as highlight the roles and
responsibilities of all communities and stakeholders
in addressing this risk.
Creation of Public Awareness on
Seismic Safety and Risk Reduction
•
A handbook on earthquake safety will be
prepared for the general public
highlighting the safety of persons (i.e.,
indoors, outdoors, and driving), buildings
and structures, and non-structural
contents of buildings.
•
A homeowners seismic safety manual
will be prepared emphasising
earthquake-resistant techniques for new
buildings and for the seismic
strengthening and retrofitting of existing
buildings.
•
A manual on structural safety audit of
infrastructure and lifeline buildings will be
prepared.
•
Translations of the above documents into
local and regional languages will be
undertaken for easy comprehension.
•
Video films will be prepared for the
general public to articulate the earthquake
risk, vulnerability and preparedness and
mitigation measures.
Awareness Drives for Specific Target
Groups
6.2.1 State governments and knowledge
institutions will, in collaboration with professional
bodies of engineers, architects and urban planners,
initiate programmes to sensitise their members on
the importance of undertaking earthquake-resistant
design and construction practices. The contents
and structure of training programmes will be
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
reviewed and revised from time to time, factoring
in the lessons learnt from the evaluation of the earlier
programmes. The associations of builders and
contractors will undertake campaigns to sensitise
their members on the risk and vulnerability to
earthquakes in various parts of the country and to
impress upon them the need to ensure the
incorporation of earthquake-resistant features in all
construction efforts.
6.3.3 NGOs and volunteer groups from within the
community will prepare and implement community
based DM plans. A database will be developed at
the state and district levels of these groups, with
their core competence and contact details. State
governments/SDMAs will set up appropriate DM
coordination mechanisms with civil society
organisations along the lines of the state level NGO
task forces and corporate task forces.
6.2.2 State governments/SDMAs will, in
collaboration with their SEMCs, HSCs and NonGovernmental Organisations (NGOs), organise
awareness programmes for specific target groups
of stakeholders on various aspects of earthquake
management. These stakeholders will include
elected representatives and civil servants, members
of local administration authorities and others like
school administrators, members of management
boards of educational institutions and hospitals,
school children, representatives of the corporate
sector, media, etc.
Medical Preparedness
Earthquake Preparedness
6.4.2 The Medical Management Plan will address
the need to create greater awareness in all medical
teams and the medical community at large, to the
most frequent type of injuries, illness and other health
problems caused by earthquakes. Trained Medical
First Responders (MFRs) for administering first aid
and resuscitation measures, at the incident site and
during transportation of casualties, will be identified.
In addition to MFRs of the National Disaster
Response Force (NDRF), DM plans at all levels will
identify medical and paramedical staff to
supplement manpower resources at district and
state levels. All members of the medical and
paramedical teams will carry out regular exercises
based on the Standard Operating Procedures
(SOPs) laid down by the respective DMAs as part
of their DM plan.
6.3.1 DM plans will be systematically developed
to prepare stakeholders to address earthquake risk.
These plans will consider the risk profile and the
special characteristics of a particular geographic
area and will be region specific. Preparedness will
include the formulation of family and community
contingency plans. Mock drills will be conducted
for industrial units, offices, schools and hospitals,
as well as for specific urban and rural areas to create
greater public awareness.
6.3.2 In metropolitan cities, the managements
of cinema theatres, malls, auditoria, community
facilities, etc., will develop plans for ensuring public
safety in the event of an earthquake. Emergency
managers will be designated, trained and given
charge of implementing emergency response
activities. Mock drills will be conducted, to test the
earthquake response capacity, in these buildings
periodically, and at least once in six months.
6.4.1 The DM plans prepared at the state and
district levels will have a single ‘all hazards’ medical
management plan to improve emergency medical
preparedness and emergency medical response.
Medical preparedness will focus on likely injuries,
outbreak of diseases and other post-earthquake
public health problems including psycho-social
trauma. It will address the need for surveillance
and for planning and rehearsing earthquake
preparedness through mock exercises.
6.4.3 A uniform casualty profile of earthquake
injuries will be created and a system of triage to
classify casualties will be institutionalised so that
the treatment can effectively be facilitated by the
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AWARENESS AND PREPAREDNESS
medical authorities concerned. This plan will include
a list of hospitals and their telephone numbers; the
availability of ambulances, doctors, anaesthetists,
specialists, paramedical staff; sources of public
and private sector medical resources; and
commonly needed medical supplies and medical
stores, blood banks, heli-ambulances and floating
hospitals, etc., for easy accessibility. SOPs for
medical evacuation, transport of victims and
treatment of the injured will also be included.
6.4.4 All public health facilities will develop their
own DM plans, with the scope for enhancing their
surge capacity in the event of disaster. Training
exercises and mock drills will be carried out regularly
by doctors as well as paramedical staff. The
medical preparedness plans will also include
identification of trained trauma and psycho-social
care teams, with nursing and paramedical staff. In
high-risk earthquake-prone areas, mobile hospitals
and Quick Reaction Medical Teams (QRMTs) will
be developed as a part of the health-care delivery
system of the states, to manage patients with minor
injuries at the incident site. The Accident Relief
Medical Vans (ARMVs) of the Railways will also
be deployed to provide immediate emergency
medical services in the event of a major earthquake.
Disaster Management Plans
6.5.1 It is reiterated here that comprehensive DM
plans will be prepared at the national, state and
district levels. At the national level, the DM plan
will focus, inter alia, on various aspects of
earthquake management, including preparedness,
mitigation and response. These plans will clearly
identify the roles of key stakeholders for each level
of disaster and also include assessments of their
own response capacity.
6.5.2 India will participate in the international effort
at improving the quality of preparedness and
response by liaising with international organisations,
UN agencies and other humanitarian actors and
share the best practices in earthquake
preparedness and mitigation.
Schedule for Awareness
Preparedness Activities
and
6.6.1 While the activities associated with creating
greater public awareness can be undertaken immediately,
the preparedness activities will be planned
according to the schedule given in Table 8 overleaf.
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Table 8: Schedule of Awareness and Preparedness Activities
Activity
Commence
ment
2007
Jun
Sep
With
immediate
effect
M*
M*
6 B Emergency Plans With
and Mock Drills immediate
effect
M*
6 A Sensitisation of
Different
Stakeholders
6 C EOCs
With
immediate
effect
2008
Dec
Mar
Jun
Dec
Implement
Implement
Implement
Implement
6D Streamlining of With
immediate
NGOs and
Volunteer Groups effect
M*
M*
Implement
6 E National and State With
immediate
Earthquake
Disaster Manage- effect
ment Plans
M*
M*
Implement
6F District to
With
Community level immediate
Preparedness Plans effect
M*
M*
Implement
6G Vulnerability
Mapping of the
Land Areas
M*
M*
Implement
With
immediate
effect
Sep
*M: Meetings
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7
Capacity Development
(Including Education, Training,
R&D and Documentation)
Earthquake Education
7.1.1 State governments must endeavour to
strengthen earthquake education by incorporating
the best available technical and non-technical inputs
on seismic safety in educational curricula.
Earthquake education will address the multifaceted
aspects of earthquake management, especially
preparedness, mitigation and response efforts. In
this regard, case histories of actual earthquakes
will be used as valuable inputs for earthquake
education.
7.1.2 The development of high-quality education
materials, textbooks, field training and the
improvement of the quality of teaching at all levels
will be given due emphasis. Education and training
programmes will be designed, with greater attention
on developing the capacity and skills of trainers
and trained teachers. Appropriately designed
science and technology courses will be introduced
to orient all target groups including school teachers
and health professionals in the subject. The central
and state governments will encourage knowledge
institutions to undertake research, teaching and
training, which will further contribute to improving
earthquake education in India.
7.1.3 All architecture and engineering graduates
will be equipped with the requisite knowledge of
earthquake-resistant design and construction
techniques. The focus will be on improving the
knowledge and skill set of human resources;
reviewing and revising the curricula; strengthening
the facilities; and institutionalising appropriate
capacity building mechanisms to ensure seismic
safety. The mainstreaming of earthquake
management in development planning will be
supplemented with the development of the requisite
infrastructure in technical and professional
institutions, improved laboratories and libraries in
knowledge institutions and R&D institutions. These
measures will enable them to undertake research,
execute pilot projects, and develop resource
materials and technical documents for education,
sensitisation and training programmes. The DM
plans prepared by central ministries and
departments and state governments will address
these requirements in detail.
Capacity Development
7.2.1 The target groups for capacity development
will include elected representatives and government
officials, professionals in visual and print media,
urban planners, infrastructure development experts,
engineers, architects and builders, NGOs,
Community Based Organisations (CBOs), social
activists, social scientists, schoolteachers, and
schoolchildren. Specially designed public
awareness programmes will be developed for
addressing the needs of physically handicapped
and mentally challenged people, women and the
elderly.
7.2.2 Disaster related curricula have already been
introduced in Class VIII, IX and X levels in the Central
Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) schools.
Other school boards will develop similar content in
their curriculum. State governments/SDMAs will,
in collaboration with their boards of intermediate
education, ensure that the subject of disaster safety
and disaster preparedness is introduced at the
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
intermediate education level (Class XI and XII or,
their equivalents), as well as at the degree level in
the non-technical disciplines. Universities and
autonomous institutes will introduce DM (which will
include earthquake management) in various
educational programmes.
7.2.3 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs),
polytechnics and universities in the states will
develop adequate technical expertise on the various
subjects related to DM. State governments will
introduce a five year quality improvement
programme for teachers and professionals engaged
in teaching the subjects related to earthquakes
(namely earth science, architecture and earthquake
engineering). The ongoing technical education
programmes for college teachers, viz., the Quality
Improvement Programme (QIP); the National
Programme for Earthquake Engineering Education
(NPEEE) supported by the Ministry of Human
Resource Development (MHRD), GoI; the National
Programme for Capacity Building of Architects in
Earthquake Risk Management (NPCBAERM); and
the National Programme for Capacity Building of
Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management
(NPCBEERM) supported by the MHA, GoI, will be
further strengthened and expanded to address the
gap between the requirement and availability of
quality teachers conversant with earthquakeresistant design and construction. All such training
programmes will incorporate testing and
certification of trainees.
7.2.4 The subject of disaster medicine covers
aspects like trauma care, epidemic control,
emergency medical care by paramedics and
emergency medical technicians, and telemedicine.
DM related aspects of medical education will
receive detailed treatment at the undergraduate
level, so that graduating doctors are able to handle
emergencies with a better understanding of the
issues involved. The MoES will, in consultation with
the Medical Council of India (MCI), University Grants
Commission (UGC), and other related agencies,
facilitate the introduction of subjects related to DM,
in the undergraduate medical curriculum.
7.2.5 The MHRD, GoI, through the NPEEE, has
already initiated a number of short and mediumterm activities related to capacity building of
teachers of architecture and engineering and
conducted a number of short-term training
programmes for teachers. These teachers will be
sent for advanced training and masters and doctoral
degree programmes at premier national institutes.
Such trained personnel will be used as trainers for
training the other professionals.
7.2.6 The curricula of IITs, NITs, engineering and
architecture colleges, ITIs, polytechnics and
universities will be suitably modified to incorporate
earthquake-resistant design and construction
techniques. The MoES will facilitate this process in
collaboration with the MHRD, GoI; the All India
Council for Technical Education (AICTE); the Council
of Architecture (COA); and the IE(I), to incorporate
earthquake education within their curriculum.
Training
7.3.1 In order to increase the thrust towards
earthquake education in India, the MoES will identify
a number of leading institutes and universities and
encourage the creation of dedicated chaired
positions for faculty members working in the area
of earthquake related education and research. Such
institutions will also offer the services of such
experienced faculty members to participate in the
activities specified in the Guidelines.
7.3.2 The National Institute of Disaster
Management (NIDM) at the national level and the
Administrative Training Institutes (ATIs) at the state
level have been tasked to train administrative
personnel from all central ministries and
departments and state governments in DM. In
accordance with these Guidelines, the NIDM will
evolve an action plan, in collaboration with the ATIs
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CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT (INCLUDING EDUCATION, TRAINING, R&D AND DOCUMENTATION)
and other technical institutions, to offer a
comprehensive curriculum related to earthquake
management, in the form of training modules for
the various target groups and initiate the design,
development and delivery of the same by June 2007.
programmes will be pilot tested, critically evaluated,
upgraded, documented, and peer reviewed.
Training modules will be developed and continuously
upgraded based on the evaluation and feedback
from participants.
7.3.3 Training artisans in specialised skills is a
critical step in ensuring proper quality control in
earthquake-resistant construction of all structures.
Both in class training and on field training will be
undertaken for the artisans involved in different
trades including masons, bar benders, welders,
carpenters, plumbers and electricians. Such training
programmes will be offered to large number of
diploma holders who are involved at the civil
engineering project sites. The state governments
will also evolve a formal framework for the
certification of artisans and adopt a two-year
certification cycle.
7.4.2 In the first phase of training, all government
architects and engineers, especially in the ULBs
and PRIs of each state, will undergo training
programmes in earthquake-resistant design and
construction. In particular, the design directorates,
if any, in the state departments will ensure that they
have architects and engineers with background in
seismic-safe design and construction. Those who
have undergone the ‘Training the Trainers’
programme will be responsible for training artisans
and practising professionals through the network
of professional societies. A timetable will be drawn
up for these training programmes to give architects
and engineers the opportunity to upgrade their skills
in the required areas. Minimum acceptable
standards of safety, as enumerated in the BIS
codes, will be disseminated through professional
organisations and the training requirements will be
integrated with the licensing criteria.
7.3.4 The National Institutes of Technical Teachers’
Training and Research (NITTTR); the state ATIs; the
National Institute of Construction Management and
Research (NICMAR); the Construction Federation
of India (CFI); the Builders Association of India (BAI),
and other national bodies will contribute to the
national effort to build the requisite number of trained
personnel to handle seismic safety in India. They
will undertake a campaign of ‘Training the Trainers’
amongst artisans, teachers and practicing
professionals in order to meet the gaps in human
resource requirement.
Capacity Building of Professionals
7.4.1 The NIDM will, in consultation with reputed
knowledge institutions, develop comprehensive
programmes for creating trainers from among
trained faculty members of engineering and
architecture colleges and professionals. State
governments/SDMAs will identify potential trainers
to develop training programmes at basic,
intermediate and advanced levels. These training
R&D
7.5.1 State governments will proactively support
application oriented research and development
activities to address current challenges, offer
solutions, and develop new techniques, for instance
by undertaking base isolation of new hospital
buildings with a view to improving their earthquakeresistance. Education in earthquake engineering will
be more meaningful only if the new knowledge is
applied to address seismic risk and actual
earthquake events are studied to integrate lessons
learnt. State governments will depute multidisciplinary teams for post-earthquake field
investigations, document the lessons and
disseminate the same to technical and general
audiences within the state. The MoES will oversee
the conduct of this effort in a systematic manner.
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7.5.2 Scenario analysis and simulation modelling
are extremely useful for undertaking long-term DM
programmes and for strengthening earthquake
preparedness, mitigation and response efforts. Risk
assessment and scenario projections require data
on the existing built environment, infrastructure, and
economic activities. The non-availability of such data
can otherwise lead to assumption based scenarios.
The MoES will, with the support of the EREC,
encourage the development of standardised
methods for earthquake risk assessment and
scenario development, support studies to collect
the data and knowledge required, develop stateof-the art reports, and evolve a procedure for
undertaking pilot projects in risk assessment and
scenario analysis.
7.5.3 The quantification of earthquake risk for a
specified area requires detailed information on a
number of factors, including seismo-tectonics,
geology and topography of the area, characteristics
of surface deposits and site effects and typology
of the construction. Seismic micro-zonation provides
such information at a local level for determining the
seismic safety of buildings and structures,
analysing the existing land use plans, and revealing
the seismic threat to the stakeholders. Microzonation studies will be carried out to guide the
development of appropriate land use zoning
regulations, especially in all important urban areas
and in areas with critical structures and vital
installations. Seismic micro-zonation studies will
follow a multi-disciplinary approach, with the
requirements of the end-users (e.g., urban planners,
design engineers, and emergency managers), and
peer reviewed before publication. A status paper
will be developed by the EREC at the national level,
based on a consensus among the professionals
on the methodologies for map preparation and
micro-zonation studies.
7.5.4 Even though these Guidelines recommend
seismic retrofitting to be undertaken only for a select
number of fragile lifeline structures, there are a large
number of structures in the country that need to be
strengthened. Detailed and precise assessment of
seismic hazard to the structure, foundation and soil
system, and the benefits of retrofitting will be
carried out before deciding on retrofitting these
structures.
7.5.5 All currently available landslide hazard maps
including those in the landslide atlas of India are
small-scale maps unsuitable for hazard and risk
analyses at district and local levels. The MoES will,
in collaboration with nodal scientific agencies and
institutions, ensure the preparation of large-scale
landslide hazard maps of areas of high vulnerability.
The reliability of landslide hazard maps will depend
on the accuracy of base maps and the approach
followed in their GIS based integration and
subsequent validation. Freshly occurring landslides
and the reactivation of existing and old landslides
on account of earthquakes will be studied. The
landslide hazard zonation maps will be prepared
based on advanced research studies carried out
by knowledge institutions to address the earthquake
induced landslides.
7.5.6 Studies will be undertaken to evolve a shelf
of architectural designs and structural design
calculations and drawings of temporary and
intermediate shelters that can be constructed in
the different geographical regions of the country
keeping in mind the weather and the functional
needs of the people. This information shelf will be
kept in the public domain for the use by all
concerned. Appropriate locations will be identified
for constructing temporary and intermediate shelters
in the event of an earthquake.
Documentation
7.6.1 The MoES will facilitate the preparation of
films, manuals and other documents targeting
various stakeholders to inculcate a culture of seismic
safety. State governments will make available
earthquake safety related materials in multiple
formats, so that different groups of stakeholders
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CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT (INCLUDING EDUCATION, TRAINING, R&D AND DOCUMENTATION)
can gather the information relevant to them. State
governments/SDMAs will set up websites and
portals to disseminate all earthquake safety related
information to stakeholders. This information will
include specific details on the earthquake risk and
vulnerability of the states, earthquake management
basics and earthquake risk mitigation for the safety
of the built environment.
7.6.2 State governments will assist subject
specialists from academia and industry to prepare
technical documents on earthquakes. Such
documents will emphasise technical specifications
for making new and old buildings and structures
earthquake resistant, and will include texts along
with solved examples that deal with detailed design
calculations for the seismic safety of structures.
National and regional libraries and information
centres will be encouraged to build repositories of
technical resources (books, reports, journals,
electronic documents, and others) related to
earthquake engineering.
7.6.3 The implementation of these Guidelines
requires participation of a wide spectrum of
professionals. The NIDM and knowledge institutions
like the IITs, NITs and other professional bodies will
create and maintain a directory of earthquake
management professionals in India, with their brief
bio-data and make these available to the SDMAs
and ATIs.
7.6.4 The MoES will undertake documentation of
the history of formal earthquake engineering and
seismology related activities in India. A number of
documents on seismic risk that have been authored
in the past have now become difficult to access or
are out of print. The MoES will launch a special
initiative to digitise these documents from various
sources and save the archives on electronic formats.
Schedule for Capacity Building (including
Education, Training, R&D, and
Documentation)
7.7.1 The schedule given in Table 9 is considered
reasonable at this juncture; all activities will be
institutionalised by and continue beyond December
2008.
Table 9: Schedule of Activities for Capacity Development
Activity
Commence
ment
2007
Jun
Sep
2008
Dec
Mar
7 A Education in
Schools and
Colleges
With
immediate
effect
7 B Technical
Education
With immediate effect
Implement
7 C Training of
Artisans
With immediate effect
Implement
7D Capacity
Building of
Professionals
With
immediate
effect
Implement
7 E Earthquake
Research and
Development
With
immediate
effect
7F Documentation
and
Dissemination
With
immediate
effect
Jun
Sep
Dec
Implement
Implement
Implement
M*
Implement
*M: Meetings
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
8
Earthquake Response
8.1.1 The management and control of the adverse
consequences of future earthquakes will require
coordinated, prompt and effective response
systems at the central and state government levels,
especially at the district and the community levels.
Many of the components of response initiatives are
the same for different types of disasters and
systems need to be developed considering the
multi-hazard scenario of various regions in order to
optimally utilise available resources.
8.1.2 For earthquakes, depending on their
magnitude, the scale of response and the
corresponding role players will be identified and
mobilised at the district, state or national levels.
Systems will be institutionalised by the DMAs, at
various levels, for coordination between the various
agencies like central government ministries and
departments, state governments, district
administration, ULBs, PRIs and other stakeholders
for effective post-earthquake response.
8.1.3 The severity of an earthquake is often
underestimated, immediately after its occurrence.
The preliminary assessment of severity of the
earthquake is based on its magnitude and depth
collected from online seismological instruments.
Field observation data, once available, will be used
to make an accurate assessment. Immediately
following the occurrence of an earthquake, the IMD
will disseminate the details of its magnitude and
epicentre to all agencies concerned. This will help
the state governments to undertake their response
appropriately.
Response
8.1.4 DM plans, prepared by all agencies
concerned, will incorporate detailed guidelines for
their activities related to the impact of an earthquake.
The response component of DM plans will consider
the rapid deployment of people, supplies and
logistics, along with the duration of their
deployment. These plans will prescribe appropriate
coordination mechanisms with other agencies
working in the affected areas.
Emergency Search and Rescue
8.2.1
The community in the affected
neighbourhood is always the first responder after
any disaster. Experience has shown that over 80
per cent of search and rescue from collapsed
buildings is carried out by the local community
before the intervention of the state machinery and
specialised search and rescue teams. Thus, trained
and equipped teams consisting of local people will
be set up in earthquake-prone areas to respond
effectively in the event of an earthquake.
8.2.2 Community level teams will be developed
in each district with basic training in search and
rescue. Training modules will be developed for
trainers of community level search and rescue teams
by NDRF training institutes. On the ground, the
NDRF battalions will assist the state government/
district authorities in training communities. They
will be further assisted by the Civil Defence, Home
Guards, fire services and NGOs. State governments
will develop procedures for formally recognising and
certifying such trained search and rescue team
members; they will also provide suitable indemnity
to community level team members for their actions
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RESPONSE
in the course of emergency response following an
earthquake. Youth organisations such as the
National Cadet Corps (NCC) and National Service
Scheme (NSS) and Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan
(NYKS) will provide support services to the response
teams at the local level under the overall guidance
and supervision of the local administration.
Emergency Relief
8.3.1 Trained community level teams will assist
in planning and setting up emergency shelters,
distributing relief among the affected people,
identifying missing people, and addressing the
needs of education, health care, water supply and
sanitation, food etc., of the affected community.
Members of these teams will be made aware of
the specific requirements of the disaster affected
communities. These teams will also assist the
government in identifying the most vulnerable
people who may need special assistance following
an earthquake.
Incident Command System (ICS)
8.4.1 All response activities will be undertaken at
the local level through a suitably devised ICS
coordinated by the local administration through the
EOC. State governments will commission and
maintain EOCs at appropriate levels for the
coordination of human resources, relief supplies and
equipment. SOPs for the EOCs will be developed
by state governments and integrated within the
framework of the ICS, which will take advantage of
modern technologies and tools, such as GIS maps,
scenarios and simulation models for effectively
responding to disasters. GIS maps available from
other sources, such as the city planning
departments will be compiled considering their
potential application after a disaster. The state
governments/SDMAs will undertake the training of
personnel involved in the ICS.
Community Based Disaster Response
8.5.1 A number of organisations, like NGOs, selfhelp groups, CBOs, youth organisations, women’s
groups, volunteer agencies, Civil Defence, Home
Guards, etc. normally volunteer their services in the
aftermath of any disaster. State government/SDMAs
and DDMAs will coordinate the allocation of these
human resources for performing various response
activities. State governments will work with these
agencies to understand and plan their roles in the
command chain of the ICS, and incorporate them
in the DM plans.
8.5.2 Large-scale natural disasters draw
overwhelming humanitarian support from different
stakeholders. The relief and response activities
carried out by such stakeholders will comply with
the norms prescribed by the appropriate authorities.
8.5.3 After an earthquake, accurate information
will be provided on the extent of the damage and
the details of the response activities through
electronic and print media. State governments will
utilise different types of media, especially print,
radio, television and Internet, to disseminate timely
and accurate information.
Involvement of the Corporate Sector
8.6.1 State governments will facilitate the
involvement of the corporate sector in making
available their services and resources to the
government during the immediate aftermath of an
earthquake. The corporate sector, as a part of the
CSR effort, can provide, inter alia, the services of
hospitals, power and telecommunication, relief
supplies, search and rescue equipment,
earthmoving equipment, and transport and logistics
of movement of relief supplies to the extent
possible. For instance, the CFI has set up the India
Disaster Response Network (IDRN) which can also
be associated with the task of emergency response.
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State governments and district authorities will
develop appropriate mechanisms to receive and
optimally utilise all such assistance.
Specialised Teams for Response
8.7.1 The Central government has set up eight
NDRF battalions for providing rapid response to
disasters. All 144 teams of the NDRF will be
especially equipped and trained in collapsed
structure search and rescue operations. The NDRF
battalions will also be provided with communication
equipment for establishing last mile connectivity.
strengthened and upgraded to have adequate
capacity to respond effectively to disasters.
Deployment of the Indian Armed Forces for postearthquake response work will be resorted to only
as the last option.
8.8.2 National Disaster Mitigation Reserves, at
the National Disaster Mitigation Resource Centres
in NDRF locations will be available to the states in
case of necessity. At the national level, a provision
is being made to meet the needs of 325,000 people
affected by disasters of level 3.
Emergency Logistics
8.7.2 The fire services in the ULBs of various
states are being used as an emergency-cum-fire
services force. The fire services will develop
adequate capacity to respond to various disasters,
in addition to managing fires.
8.7.3 The police play a very important role after
an earthquake in maintaining law and order,
assisting in search and rescue, and in the
transportation and certification of casualties.
8.7.4 The Home Guards serve as an auxiliary arm
of the police force and support the district
administration in various tasks. The Civil Defence
is being reoriented to assist in handling DM.
Members of these organisations will be trained in
tasks like search and rescue and evacuation,
protection of assets in evacuated areas, and
management of relief camps and aid distribution
centres.
Improving Earthquake Response
8.8.1 To augment the capacities of the states, all
state governments will raise, from within their
armed police force, adequate strength of personnel
for the SDRF with appropriate disaster response
capabilities. In addition, the police, fire services,
Home Guards and Civil Defence are being
8.9.1 Specialised heavy earthmoving equipment
and search and rescue equipment are required
immediately following an earthquake to clear debris
and to carry out search and rescue of trapped
people from collapsed structures. State
governments will compile a list of such equipment
and identify suppliers of such specialised
equipment and enter into long-term agreements for
their mobilisation and deployment in the event of
an earthquake. The IDRN, which is a web based
resource inventory of information on emergency
equipment and response personnel available in
every district, will be revised and updated frequently.
8.9.2 The setting up of relief camps for the people
whose houses have been damaged by an
earthquake and the provision of basic amenities in
such camps involve complex logistics of mobilising
relief supplies, tents, water supply and sanitation
systems, transport and communication systems,
and medical supplies. The DM plans at the state
and district levels will address this issue in detail.
8.9.3 In the event of mass casualties, states will
develop systems for proper identification of the
deceased, recording the details of victims, and their
DNA fingerprinting.
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RESPONSE
Emergency Medical Response
8.10.1 Prompt and efficient emergency medical
response will be provided by QRMTs, mobile field
hospitals, ARMVs and heli-ambulances. They will
be activated to reach the earthquake affected areas
immediately, along with dressing material, splints,
portable X-ray machines, mobile operation theatres,
resuscitation equipment and life-saving drugs, etc.
Resuscitation, triage and medical evacuation of
victims who require hospitalisation will be done in
accordance with SOPs. A large number of victims
may suffer from psycho-social trauma, for which
appropriate counselling will be provided.
8.10.2 The emergency medical plan will be
operationalised immediately on receiving
information from the earthquake affected areas.
Hospitals in the affected areas will create a surge
capacity for the required number of beds by
discharging non-critical patients and mobilise
doctors and support staff, additional orthopaedic
equipment and supplies at short notice. The
emergency medical plan will identify the
requirement of enhanced manpower, medical stores
and the requirement of blood and its components
for various levels of earthquakes. After an
earthquake, information centres will be set up to
provide medical response information to the public,
relatives of victims and media. The designated
hospitals will also identify the surgical teams that
can be deployed in the field at short notice and
arrange for their transport, medical equipment and
supplies. State governments will coordinate with
the hospitals, both government and private, in order
to facilitate effective and adequate hospital
response after earthquakes.
8.10.3 Documentation of medical response
provided after an earthquake will be done by a
medical administrator. This documentation will be
used as feedback for future improvement of the
response strategies.
Schedule for Response Activities
8.11.1 All the response activities outlined above
require detailed planning and comprehensive
mobilisation of manpower. The schedule given in
Table 10 (Pg 42) is considered reasonable at this
juncture; all activities will be institutionalised by and
continued beyond December 2008.
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Table 10: Schedule of Activities for Strengthening Earthquake Response
Activity
8 A Trigger-based
Categorisation
Commence
ment
2007
Jun
Sep
2008
Dec
Mar
With
immediate
effect
M*
Implement
8 B Response Plans With
for Different
immediate
Trigger Levels
effect
M*
Implement
M*
Implement
8 C ICS
With
immediate
effect
8D Support
Function and
Partnerships
With
immediate
effect
8 E NDRF
With
immediate
effect
8F Other
With
Emergency
immediate
Response Teams effect
8G Emergency
Equipment and
Logistics
Jun
Sep
Dec
Implement
Implement
M*
Implement
With
immediate
effect
Implement
8H Emergency
With
Medical Response immediate
Capability
effect
Implement
*M: Meetings
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9
Disaster Management Plans
DM Plans
9.1.1 In accordance with the various disaster
specific Guidelines laid down by the NDMA, the
NEC will prepare the National Disaster Management
Plan, incorporating the DM plans prepared by the
central ministries/departments and state
governments. This Plan, inter alia, will include
various aspects of earthquake management and
be approved by the NDMA. The salient activities
covered by this Plan will include:
•
Preparation of state and district DM plans,
with specific reference to the management
of earthquakes.
•
Revision of town planning bye-laws and
adoption of model bye-laws.
•
Wide dissemination of earthquake-resistant
building codes, the National Building Code
2005, and other safety codes.
•
Training of trainers in professional and
technical institutions.
•
Training professionals like engineers,
architects, and masons in earthquakeresistant construction.
•
Launching demonstration projects to
disseminate
earthquake-resistant
techniques.
•
Launching public awareness campaigns
on seismic safety and risk reduction and
sensitising all stakeholders to earthquake
mitigation.
•
Establishing appropriate mechanisms for
compliance review of all construction
designs submitted to ULBs.
•
Undertaking mandatory technical audits of
structural designs of major projects by the
respective competent authorities.
•
Developing an inventory of the existing built
environment.
•
Assessing the seismic risk and vulnerability
of the existing built environment by carrying
out structural safety audits of all critical
lifeline structures.
•
Developing seismic strengthening and
retrofitting standards and guidelines for
existing critical lifeline structures.
•
Undertaking seismic strengthening and
retrofitting of critical lifeline structures,
initially as pilot projects and then extending
the exercise to the other structures (as
detailed in Chapter 4, para 4.5.1), in a
phased manner.
•
Preparation of DM plans by schools,
hospitals, super malls, entertainment
multiplexes, etc., and carrying out mock
drills for enhancing preparedness.
•
Strengthening the EOC network.
•
Streamlining the mobilisation of
communities, civil society partners, the
corporate sector and other stakeholders.
•
Preparing community and village level DM
plans, with specific reference to
management of earthquakes.
•
Carrying out the vulnerability assessment
of earthquake-prone areas and creating an
inventory of resources for effective
response.
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
•
Introducing earthquake safety education in
schools, colleges and universities and
conducting mock drills in these institutions.
•
Strengthening earthquake safety research
and development in professional technical
institutions.
•
Preparing documentation on lessons from
previous earthquakes and their wide
dissemination.
•
Developing an appropriate mechanism for
licensing and certification of professionals
in earthquake-resistant construction
techniques by collaborating with
professional bodies.
•
Preparing an action plan for the upgradation
of the capabilities of the IMD and BIS with
clear roadmaps and milestones.
implementation of these plans by various agencies
falling within the purview of various ministries/
departments and other stakeholders at regular
intervals.
9.2.2 DM plans will necessarily address the worst
case scenarios and cover various aspects of
management of response, risk, situation, information
and communication. Since some disasters may
transcend geographic boundaries, these plans will
also recognise the importance of effective
networking and coordination of different levels of
response mechanisms.
DM Plans of State Governments
Central Ministry and Department Plans
9.3.1 In addition to preparing their DM plans, state
governments will also encourage the preparation
of community preparedness plans to address their
own special features and outline the linkages of
the various state support systems and the
jurisdiction of each of these departments. The GoI
has initiated the GoI-UNDP Programme on Disaster
Risk Management (DRM) to encourage the
development of district, block, taluka and village
DM plans, which will be further strengthened. The
existing plans will be modified, where required, in
order to streamline and optimise the response
systems. These DM plans will be widely
disseminated among various stakeholders for
creating greater public awareness. These plans
must indicate responsible office for carrying out
specific tasks along with time lines for
implementation.
9.2.1 Each central ministry/department will
prepare its DM plan which will cover all aspects of
the disaster cycle for every disaster, including
earthquakes. These plans will clearly indicate the
actions to be taken, the allocation of tasks among
the various functionaries, the SOPs to be followed,
the methodology for carrying out the tasks specified
and the time lines for their execution. Mock drills
will be carried out to test the efficacy of the
9.3.2 Authorities in charge of education institutions
will prepare earthquake preparedness plans and
conduct mock drills. Using school buildings as
temporary relief camps during disasters disrupts
the education of children for long periods. Alternative
arrangements for housing relief camps will be put
in place through various mitigation projects to
gradually reduce the dependence on the buildings
of educational institutions.
•
Developing appropriate risk transfer
instruments by collaborating with insurance
companies and financial institutions.
•
Operationalising the NDRF battalions.
•
Operationalising the SDRF battalions in the
states.
•
Strengthening the medical preparedness
for effective earthquake response, etc.
•
Enforcement and monitoring of compliance
of earthquake-resistant building codes,
town planning bye-laws and other safety
regulations.
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DISASTER MANAGEMENT PLANS
9.3.3 All hospitals will develop their emergency
plans, conduct mock drills and update themselves
from time to time with relevant information on DM
preparedness. State governments/SDMAs will
monitor the preparation and testing of these plans.
State governments will ensure that all government
offices are able to withstand earthquakes, and are
fully prepared with DM plans.
9.3.4 The DM plans will incorporate all the features
of the EOCs including their establishment and
operations.
Plans of Nodal Agencies
9.4.1 The IMD is the nodal agency for the
monitoring of seismic activity in India through their
network of seismic observatories. It will record the
occurrence of earthquakes anywhere in the country
and report the same to various designated
functionaries in the GoI and the state governments.
9.4.2 The IMD maintains a countrywide network
of 51 seismological observatories for regional
seismic monitoring in India. It also operates a 16station V-SAT based digital seismic telemetry
system around the National Capital Territory (NCT)
of Delhi for close monitoring of seismic activity in
the region. The IMD is presently in the process of
upgrading its network of observatories by adding
20 new stations and upgrading 20 existing stations
with state-of-the-art systems. Also, a 20-station
telemetry system is planned to be established in
the North-East for precise monitoring of seismic
activity in the region.
9.4.3 The BIS is the nodal agency for preparing
earthquake-resistant building codes and other safety
related codes. For structures like dams, the
responsibility lies with the Central Water
Commission (CWC), while for the bridges, it lies
with the Indian Roads Congress (IRC). The Indian
Standards Committees set up by the BIS have been
working on the revision and finalisation of earthquake
resistant codes. The BIS will ensure finalisation of
all pending revisions within the next two years.
9.4.4 The MoES has been set up by the GoI to
bring together the Earth Commission, the IMD, the
EREC, and other key institutions to facilitate effective
coordination of the various aspects related to the
ocean, meteorology, seismology, marine
environment, atmosphere and earth sciences, not
specifically allotted to any other department or
ministry. As the nodal agency for earthquake
management, the MoES will prepare their DM plan
based on the Guidelines laid down by the NDMA.
The various aspects of the DM plans prepared by
the other central ministries/departments and state
governments and other stakeholder groups will be
included in the DM plan prepared by the MoES,
GoI. The MoES will also prepare a comprehensive
plan for the upgradation of the capabilities of the
IMD with clear roadmap and milestones.
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Contributions
Core Group Members
Prof. N. Vinod Chandra Menon, Member, NDMA: Chairman
Anand S. Arya, National Seismic Advisor, GoI
Rajendra K. Bhandari, Chairman, Centre for Disaster Mitigation and Management, Vellore Institute of
Technology
C. V. R. Murty, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
Ravi Sinha, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
Experts who provided Valuable Feedback
Many experts provided critical comments on the earlier versions of the Guidelines, including:
Brigadier R. S. Ahluwalia, Deputy Assistant Chief, Integrated Defence Staff, New Delhi
R. K. Amrohi, SMO, Indo-Tibet Border Police, Haryana
J. C. Arora, Head (Standardisation), Civil Engineering Division, BIS, New Delhi
S. Arunachalam, Deputy Director, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai
B. K. Bansal, Scientist F, DST, New Delhi
P. V. Belgaumkar, Deputy Inspector General (Op), Central Reserve Police Force, New Delhi
A. K. Bhatnagar, ADG, IMD, New Delhi
A. K. Bose, Director, Designers & Planners Combine, New Delhi
S. Chaturvedi, Director (Civil), BIS, New Delhi
S. Dasgupta, Director, GSI, Kolkata
S. K. Deb, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Guwahati
T. K. Datta, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
A. Goyal, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay
N. Lakshmanan, Director, Structural Engineering Research Centre, Chennai
B. Lal, Acting Director General, IMD, New Delhi
P. R. Mehta, Past Chairman, CoA, New Delhi
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CONTRIBUTIONS
M. Mohanty, Scientist, DST, New Delhi
D. K. Paul, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee
H. Kumar, Delhi Representative, Geo Hazards International, New Delhi
R. P. Kumar, Assistant Professor, IIIT, Hyderabad
S. Kumar, Professor, NIDM, New Delhi
Brigadier R. S. Kumar, Director, National Spatial Data Infrastructure, New Delhi
Colonel B. B. Pande, Additional Director General (HG), Civil Defence, New Delhi
J. K. Prasad, Chief (Building Materials), BMTPC, New Delhi
S. R. Ramasamy, AIG (Fire), Central Industrial Security Force, New Delhi
Major General M. G. Rao, Surveyor General of India, SoI, New Delhi
Y. P. Sharda, GSI, New Delhi
A. K. Shukla, Director, EREC, IMD, New Delhi
Lt. Colonel S. N. Singh, GSO1PP (TAS&O), Indian Army, New Delhi
Brigadier V. S. Sukhdial, Deputy Director General, Civil Defence, New Delhi
C. V. Vaidyanathan, Scientist & Advisor, SERC, Chennai
B. Verma, Past President, Indian Institute of Architects, New Delhi
Participants at the Regional Consultation of Northern and Eastern States at IIT,
Kanpur on 17 July 2006
Veena Kumari, Under-Secretary (Revenue), Government of Punjab, Chandigarh, Punjab
Mahavir Singh, Divisional Commissioner, Government of Punjab, Ambala, Punjab
S. C. Sharma, Superintending Engineer, Rajasthan PWD, Jaipur, Rajasthan
B. P. Suneja, Lecturer, Engineering College, Kota, Rajasthan
A. K. Dwivedi, Lecturer, Engineering College, Kota, Rajasthan
Sanjay Bhatia, State Project Officer, UNDP, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
M. P. Srivastava, Superintending Engineer, Awas Vikas Parishad, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow,
Uttar Pradesh
D. S. Sarawat, General Manager (Technical), UP Rajkiya Nirman Nigam, Government of Uttar Pradesh,
Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
K. K. Asthana, Chief Architect, UP Rajkiya Nirman Nigam, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Uttar
Pradesh
Jeevan Pandit, UN Volunteer, UNDP, Government of Uttar Pradesh, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Girish Chand Joshi, Senior Executive (Earthquake Engineering & Town Planning), Government of Uttarakhand,
Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand
G. S. Goel, Chief Town Planner, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Chakresh Jain, Assistant Engineer, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Samir Chakravorty, Consulting Architect, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Arif Mohammed, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar
Pradesh
Masroor Alam, Professor, Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
Sunil Kumar Jajon, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Harcourt Butler Technological
Institute, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Pradeep Kumar, Senior Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Harcourt Butler Technological Institute,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Sudhir K. Jain, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
Durgesh C. Rai, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
Javed N. Malik, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
Tribhuwan Ram, Engineer-in-Chief, UP Public Works Department, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
G. P. S. Chauhan, Director, UP PWD Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Umesh Chandra Kabdwal, Secretary, Mussoorie-Dehradun Development Authority, Dehra Dun, Uttarakhand
Abinash Kumar, Nodal Officer, Patna Regional Development Authority, Patna, Bihar
Mahesh Chandra, Assistant Engineer, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
P. K. Nautiyal, Additional Director, Medical & Health Services, Government of Uttaranchal, Dehra Dun,
Uttarakhand
O. P. Mishra, Executive Engineer, Kanpur Development Authority, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Arvind K. Garg, Managing Director, Techpro Engineers Private Limited, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Bhanu, Secretary, Poorvanchal Gramin Vikas Sansthan, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh
Smriti Shukla, Project Officer, UNDP, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Amit Prashant, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
Ajanta Sachan, Research Fellow, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
Participants at the Regional Consultation for Southern and Western States at IIT,
Bombay on 28 and 29 July 2006
A. Mehta Chakor, Lecturer, Rizvi College of Architecture, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Birju Patel, Senior Executive, GSDMA, Gandhinagar, Gujarat
Rajesh Kishore, CEO, GSDMA, Gandhinagar, Gujarat
S. C. Mohanty, OSD, Department of R&R, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai, Maharashtra
J. B. Singh, Collector, Government of Goa, South Goa, Goa
Sudhir Kumar, Programme Associate, UNDP, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Mohan M. Murudi, Professor, SPCE, Mumbai, Maharashtra
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CONTRIBUTIONS
Pranesh Murnal, Professor, Government College of Engineering, Karad, Maharashtra
Tripti Chakravorty, Programme Coordinator, Global Forum for Disaster Reduction, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Amit Verma, Co-Founder, Global Forum for Disaster Reduction, Mumbai, Maharashtra
S. K. Patel, Executive Engineer, Department of Roads & Buildings, Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar,
Gujarat
K. G. Gupta, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Goa Engineering College, Ponda, Goa
G. Venkatram Reddy, Vice-Chairman, Visakhapatnam Urban Development Authority, Visakhapatnam,
Andhra Pradesh
S. Balakrishna, Joint Director, Department of Municipal Administration & Urban Development, Government
of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh
V. Narendar Rao, Additional Chief City Planner, Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad, Secunderabad,
Andhra Pradesh
Amisha Ambani, Architect, Kamala Raheja Vidyanidhi, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Agrawal Ritesh, Architect, LB Hiray College of Architecture, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Chahel Sartaj Singh, Deputy Engineer, Bhiwandi-Nizampur City Municipal Corporation, Bhiwandi,
Maharashtra
R. Santhanam, Special Commissioner & Commissioner of Revenue Administration, Government of Tamil
Nadu, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
R. Ramaraju, Chairman, The Indian Institute of Architects, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
T. Senthilnayagam, Chairman, Institution of Engineers, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Sudesh Punyarthi, System Manager, Bhiwandi Corporation, Bhiwandi, Maharashtra
Alpana Khandare, Project Officer (UEVRP), Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Amit Kumar, Professor, Centre for Disaster Management, YASHADA, Pune, Maharashtra
V. Kumar, Lecturer, Government College of Engineering, Salem, Tamil Nadu
M. Sekar, Chairman, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
V. V. Vaidya, Chief Officer (DMP), Bombay Municipal Corporation, Mumbai, Maharashtra
A. J. Dave, Assistant Engineer, Bombay Municipal Corporation, Mumbai, Maharashtra
N. G. Dubhashi, Professor, Goa Medical College, Bambolim, Goa
Chandan Ghosh, Professor, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi
R.M. Damgir, Lecturer, Government College of Engineering, Aurangabad, Maharashtra
Ashok Kumar Gupta, Deputy Commissioner, Government of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh
K. Udaya, Chief Architect, Government of Karnataka, PWD, Bangalore, Karnataka
B. P. Kaniram, Director, Government of Karnataka, Bangalore, Karnataka
Nivedita P. Haran, Commissioner (Land Revenue), Government of Kerala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
Kumthekar Madhav Balchandra, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Government College of
Engineering, Karad, Maharashtra
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
Milind Manohar Puranik, Lecturer, SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technology, Nanded, Maharashtra
V. M. Topkar, Professor, VJTI, Mumbai, Maharashtra
R. Sivasubramanian, Senior Planner, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Egmore, Tamil Nadu
A. Sundaram, Vice-Principal, Stanley Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
A. U. Digraskar, Professor, SGGS Institute of Engineering & Technology, Nanded, Maharashtra
G. Manickavasagam, Joint Director, Department of Town & Country Planning, Government of Tamil Nadu,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
K. Shivkumar, Scientific Officer, Department of Atomic Energy, Nagpur, Maharashtra
R. Nagarajan, Professor, CSRE, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Kalavathy Ponniraivan, Dean, Madras Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
Thidgavalli Kirismakaran, Dean, Government Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
M. A. Patel, Superintending Engineer, GSEI Designs (Roads & Planning Circle), Gandhinagar, Gujarat
B. G. Birajdar, Professor, Government Engineering College, Pune, Maharashtra
K. K. Sangle, Lecturer, VJTI, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Vikram Pawar, Architect, Kamala Raheja Vidyanidhi, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Alok Goyal, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Kapil Gupta, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
N. K. Chandiramani, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
R. S. Jangid, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Siddhartha Ghosh, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
B. V. S. Viswanadham, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
M. C. Deo, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Roopali Chaudhary, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Vaidehi, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
K. S. P. Aditya, Dual Degree Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Asma, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Nipun Gupta, Dual Degree Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Pravin Thorat, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Ashish Sapre, Research Associate, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Shreenivas, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Rajesh Udgiri, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Jaya Kumar, M.Tech. Student, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
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Contact Us
For more information on these Guidelines for Management of Earthquakes, please contact:
Prof. N. Vinod Chandra Menon
Member
National Disaster Management Authority
3rd Floor, Centaur Hotel, Near IGI Airport
New Delhi 110037
Tel: (011) 2565 5007
Fax: (011) 2565 5029
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.ndma.gov.in
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES
MANAGEMENT OF EARTHQUAKES
April 2007
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NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA